Skyjack Chronology

Chronology of aviation terrorism: 1968-2004

Skyjack’s up-to-date database presented below offers the widest database of aviation terrorism incidents since July 1968.
The database provides the following information :

A. General Information: This section is vital for statistical analysis: Date marked as dd/mm/yy (which stands for day, month (shortened version), year);airline name; type of aircraft; flight no.; type of attack; No. of attackers (in case where the aircraft has been hijacked); number of crew and passengers listed as: xx/yy (passengers/ crew) or total on board (crew + passengers, including hijackers in a case of air-hijacking or mid-air suicide mission hijackers only).

B. This section highlights the original aircraft route, the airport at which incident took place (in case of ground attack), destinations where the aircraft was taken and/or the final destination.

C. This section offers an identification of terrorist organization(s). This section is vital for later analysis of aerial terrorism modus, as well as the tendency of various organizations to utilize aerial terrorism: which of them is most connected to this type of operation? Is there any possible relationship between types of aerial terrorism and a specific terrorists organization? Is the severity of incidents related to a specific terrorist organization? In case of combined attack of two different groups, (such as the Air France hijacking to Entebbe, by the PFLP-SC (Waddi Haddad Faction) and the RAF(Baader -Meinhof) in 27 June, 1976, the group that most likely conducted the attack or its dominancy was greater than the other group, is listed first.

D. Terrorist demands: this critical section highlights the objectives of the hijackers, in a case where negotiations were taking place. In order to locate possible trends related to aerial terrorism within particular years or decades, specific details regarding the terrorist demands, are highlighted. In addition, this section may highlight possible relationship between the type of organization and its demands.

E. This section describes the results, concerning casualties and injuries as well as other relevant information. Note, that casualties and /or injured passengers, crew or air marshals are counted. As to the latter, it is assumed that sky marshals or uncovered in-flight security officers casualties or considered as terrorism victims. However, a commando or police assault on an hijacked jet, causing fatalities among them, is not considered as terrorism. Therefore, Robert Stethem murder on board the hijacked TWA jet (June 1985) is considered as terrorism, mainly due to the fact that he wasn’t on board on duty, he wasn’t wearing uniform (his identity and role was discovered after the terrorists checked the passengers passports. Had Stethem wearing uniform, the terrorists wouldn’t needing to check Stethem identity, and he would have been shot before the passports checking.

F: Remarks: this section offers additional information regarding the attack, in order to offer a wide perspective of the incident.


Date: 23 July 1968
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al Israel Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: LY426
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 38/10
Destination: Rome-Tel Aviv. The plane was forced to land in Algeria.
Terrorists identification: PFLP- ‘Al-Assifa’ (‘The Storm’) unit
Terrorist demands: The release of 1200 Arab prisoners Jailed In Israel
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The first ever Palestinian terrorist hijacking for political extortion.
*. 2 of the terrorists names were: Ali Shafik Ahmed Taha (‘Captain Rafat’) who would participate 4 years later in the Sabena hijacking (8 May, , 1972), and Yousef Khatib, who would participate 4 years later in the Lufthansa hijacking (22 February, 1972)
*. The terrorists announced that the aircraft is called ‘Liberation of Palestine’.
*.26 Non Israeli passengers were released upon arrival at Algeria. 22 Israeli passengers (including crew) were held as hostages. Another 10 passengers (including 3 stewardesses) were released after 5 days.
*. 7 crew members and 5 Israeli passengers crew members were held for 39 days in Algeria
*. After 39 days in captivity, on 1 September, the hostages were released in exchange for 16 to 24 Arab prisoners held in Israel .
*. The aircraft was returned to Israel by an Air-France crew.


Date: 4 November 1968
Type of airline / aircraft: National Airlines Boeing 727
Flight No.: 186
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 65
Destination: Domestic flight After take-off from New Orleans, to Miami via Houston. The aircraft was taken to Havana (Cuba)
Terrorists identification: ‘Black Nationalist Freedom Fighters’
Terrorist demands:?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The hijacker robbed the passengers before landing
*. The hijacker identified himself as a ‘Black nationalist freedom fighter’, therefore the event will be considered as terrorism.
*.The hijacker was arrested in Cuba.


Date: 8 November 1968
Type of airline / aircraft: Olympic Airways Boeing 707
Flight No.:
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 130
Destination: En route from Paris to Athens
Terrorists identification: Italian nationals
Terrorist demands: Distributing Propaganda Leaflets
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The 2 hijackers declared that the hijacking was an act of opposition to the Military Junta in Greece. The hijackers announced that the passengers were punished for going to Greece .


Date: 26 December 1968
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al Boeing 707
Flight No.: LY 253
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 47
Destination: Bound for New York via Paris From Tel-Aviv via Athens. The attack occurred at Athens Airport during aircraft’s taxiing
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: —-
Casualties / Injuries: 1 Passenger murdered, and 1 stewardess injured
Incident results /remarks:
*.Terrorists named Mahmoud Muhammad (25) and Maher Suleiman (19)
*.The attack included firing at the El-Al aircraft, and throwing grenades at the aircraft’s engines.
*.The 2 terrorists were captured later by the Greek officials.


Date: 18 February 1969
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al Boeing 720B
Flight No.: LY 432
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total:
Destination: Bound from Amsterdam for Tel-Aviv via Switzerland. The attack occurred at Kloten Airport (Zurich), when the jet was about to takeoff
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: The trainee pilot and 3 passengers were murdered. 3 crew members were injured.
Incident results /remarks: The terrorists were: Amina Dhabour , the first women to participate in a foreign Palestinian terrorists attack; Mohammed Abu el-Haija; Ibrahim Youssef, and Abdul Mohsin Hassan.
*. Israeli security guard (Mordechai Rahamim) killed 1 terrorist. The other 3 terrorist were sentenced to 12 years’ imprisonment .
*. The Israeli security officer who killed the terrorist was charged in Swiss court with murder, imprisoned for several months, later released following intensive diplomatic pressure.
*. The 3 terrorists were later released in exchange for the hijacked Swissair jet (‘The Dawson’s Field’, 1970)


Date: 1 March 1969
Type of airline / aircraft: Ethiopian Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total:
Destination: Frankfurt airport
Terrorists identification: ELF (Eritrean Liberation Front)
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: Several cleaning women were injured
Incident results /remarks:
*.The sabotage was a retaliation for the use of Ethiopian Airlines planes to transport Ethiopian troops into Eritrea.


Date: 18 June 1969
Type of airline / aircraft: Ethiopian Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Karachi airport
Terrorists identification: Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF)
Terrorist demands: Publicize opposition
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists claimed that the aim of the attack was to dramatize their opposition to Ethiopian rule in Eritrea. On 31 July, the ELF warned travellers not to fly Ethiopian Airlines.
*. The Jet was damaged, later repaired.


Date: 29 August 1969
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA Boeing 707-331B
Flight No.: 840
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 101/12
Destination: Bound for Tel-Aviv from New- York via Rome and Athens. The plane was hijacked over the Adriatic and forced to land in Damascus, Syria
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: Publicize opposition to Israel and America
Casualties / Injuries: All passengers were evacuated, 4 were injured. The plane was damaged by explosives, thrown at the cockpit
Incident results /remarks:
*.The first time where the PFLP targeted non-Israeli aircraft
* The terrorists’ names: Leila Khaled (the first ever hijacking conducted by a female terrorist) and Salim Issawi, both born in Haifa.
*. Khaled announced that the plane had been taken over by the Che Guevara Commando Unit of the PFLP.
*. 4 Israeli passengers (women) were released on September 3, the other 2 were released after 3 months, in exchange for 2 Syrian air force pilots held in Israel prisoners.
Khaled announced to the passengers that no harm would be done, including to the Israeli passengers, and that all of them would be released upon landing
*. Khaled ordered the pilot to fly over Haifa (Israel), where she was born, as well as ordering the Israeli airport tower to address the jet as ‘Popular Front, Free Arab Palestine’ instead of ‘TWA 840’, as well as threatening to blow up the plane right in the airport, although she admitted that she didn’t intended to arm any of the passengers.


Date: 12 December 1969
Type of airline / aircraft: Ethiopian Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total:?
Destination: En route from Madrid to Addis Ababa via Asmara. The aircraft was taken to Athens
Terrorists identification: Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF
Terrorist demands: Hand out leaflets
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The ELF admitted that the main purpose was to hand out leaflets rather than hijacking the aircraft.
*. The terrorists were killed by a plainclothes security guards.


Date: 12 December 1969
Type of airline / aircraft: Ethiopian Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from Asmara to Addis Ababa.
The aircraft was taken to Athens
Terrorists identification: Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF)
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: The 2 terrorists were killed by sky marshals
Incident results /remarks:


Date: 21 December 1969
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Athens Airport. The aircraft was bound for Rome and New York
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands:?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Failure attempt: the terrorists were caught with guns and dynamite in their hand baggage.
*. The terrorists named Maha Abu Khalil, 29 years old female teacher, Sami Aboud and Isam Doumidi, planned to divert the jet to Tunis and blow it up, as a protest against America’s support for Israel. They were later released following the Olympic Airways jet hijacking (23 July, 1970).


Date: 8 January 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA Boeing 707
Flight No.: 802
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 20
Destination: En route from Paris to Rome. The aircraft was taken to Beirut
Terrorists identification: A Frenchman named Christian Belon
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist fired shots into the cockpit at Rome airport.
*. Upon arrival at Beirut, the terrorist was quoted saying :’I did what I did to spite America and Israel because America helps Israel and encourages Israel and her aggression.


Date: 21 February 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Austrian Airlines, Caravelle SE-210
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers:—-
No. of passengers/crew/total: 33/5
Destination: En route from Frankfurt to Tel Aviv
Terrorists identification: PFLP-GC (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine- General Command of Ahmed Jibril
Terrorist demands:——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The bomb had been packed tightly between layers of newspapers which absorbed most of the shock, enabling the jet to land with no casualties


Date: 21 February 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Swissair, Convair-990A
Flight No.: 330
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: —–
No. of passengers/crew/total: 38/9
Destination: Bound for Tel Aviv from Zurich
Terrorists identification: PFLP-GC (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine- General Command of Ahmed Jibril
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: All 47 passengers and crew were murdered.
Incident results /remarks:
The first ever mid-air bombing conducted by terrorists.
*.The aircraft slammed into a forest 15 miles north-west of the airport.
*. The bomb detonator had been set to activate upon reaching a specified altitude.


Date: 31 March 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Japan Airlines (JAL) Boeing 727
Flight No.: 351
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 9
No. of passengers/crew/total: 138
Destination: Domestic flight from Tokyo to Fukuoka.
The aircraft landed at Fukuoka, Kimpo, then finally taken to North Korea
Terrorists identification: Japanese Red Army (JRA) students headed by Takamoro Tamiya
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.23 passengers including 12 children and 10 women were released after refueling at Fukuoka
*.The purpose of diverting the jet to Pyongyang was to set up a base for ‘world wide revolution’, as well as expressing solidarity with North Korea as well as drawing attention to the economic and political collusion of Japan with the US
*.One of the hijackers was Tekishi Okomoto, whose brother, Kozo Okomoto, would 2 years later lead the attack at Lod airport (30 May 1972).
*.This incident marked Japan’s first Hijacking as well as the first dramatic attack by the JRA.
*.Since the JRA is a political- revolutionary oriented movement, the incident has a political orientation. According to one of the captive passengers, the terrorists claimed that ‘… they would create a new revolution and start a new world’
*.The terrorists were equipped with Samurai swords.
*. The terrorists were given political asylum


Date: 24 May 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Compania Mexicana de Aviacion, Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 79
Destination: En route from Merida to Mexico City
Terrorist identification: Unknown
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The hijackers’ motive was political: revenge at the Mexican authorities for killing a Guatemalan guerrilla leader 2 years earlier


Date: 22 June 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Pan-Am Boeing 707
Flight No.:PA 119
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 143
Destination: En route from Beirut to Rome. The aircraft was taken to Cairo
Terrorists identification: Freelance supporter of Palestinians, named Haxhi H. Xhaferi
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist declared he was protesting against American imperialism in Vietnam


Date: 1 July 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Brazilian Services Aereos Cruzeiro do Sul- SA Caravelle
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 34/3
Destination: En route from Rio de Janeiro to Sao Paulo
Terrorists identification: ALN(Alianca Libertadora Nacional
Terrorist demands: The release of the jailed hijackers’ terrorist colleagues
Casualties / Injuries:.The pilot was shot in both legs
*The terrorists were overpowered at Rio de Janeiro
Incident results /remarks:
* The aircraft was intended to be taken to Cuba.
*. Since the hijackers’ motive was to hold the passengers as hostages in exchange for jailed terrorists, this event is considered as terrorism.


Date: 22 July 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Olympic Airways, Boeing 727
Flight No.: 255
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 61
Destination: En route from Beirut to Athens. The aircraft was taken to Cairo
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: The release of 7 terrorists, jailed in Greece.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The weapons were smuggled on board by the cleaners at Beirut airport
*. The terrorists’ demand to release their colleagues jailed in Athens following previous attacks on the Israeli airline on 26 December 1968; the attempted hijacking of the TWA airliner on 21 December, 1968, and for the attack on the El-Al office in Athens.
*. The terrorists threatened to blow-up the aircraft with the hostages if their demands weren’t met. Among the hijackers: a female named Mona
*.The passengers were released after the 7 terrorists were set free.
*. The aircraft landed at Cairo, after Beirut’s refusal to permit landing after the Israeli attack at Beirut airport on 28 December,1968 .


Date: 2 August 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Pan -Am Boeing 747
Flight No.: PA 299
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 376
Destination: En route from New York to San Juan. The aircraft was taken to Cuba
Terrorists identification: Puerto-Rican nationalist
Terrorist demands: Seeking Independence for Puerto Rico
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The first hijacked Jumbo jet that was taken to Cuba.
*.The terrorist, Rudolfo Rivera Rios, claimed that the Hijacking was for the purpose of dramatizing the cause of Puerto Rico independence.
*.The terrorist was sentenced to life in prison.


Date: 6 September 1970′ Hijack Sunday’
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA-Boeing 707
Flight No.: 741
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 141/14
Destination: Bound For New-York from Tel Aviv via Frankfurt. The aircraft was hijacked over Belgium, and taken to Dawson Field, Jordan
Terroristsidentification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: Release of their group’s members held in various jails of the hijacked aircrafts’ nations and in West Germany (following the Munich airport attack)
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The aircraft was taken to Dawson’s Field (Jordan), named after the local commander (1948) Air Chief Marshal Sir Walter Dawson.
*. Dawson’s Field was chosen mainly due to the fact that this area was controlled by Palestinians. This event would later evolve into the creation of the Black September Organization- BSO). Another reason for choosing Dawson’s Field was the PFLP assumption that by choosing Dawson field, an isolated airstrip,it would be difficult to launch a rescue operation by the affected states.
*. The remained hostages were split into groups and held in Jordanian refugees camps, for the purpose of preventing their release in case of a military operation conducted by the Jordanians and /or by the affected states.
*. The field was renamed ‘Revolutionary Airport’ by the terrorists.
*. The aircraft were destroyed by explosives (12/9)


Date: 6 September 1970 ‘ Hijack Sunday’
Type of airline / aircraft: Swiss-Air DC-8
Flight No.: 100
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 143/12
Destination: En route from Zurich to New-York. The aircraft was taken to Dawson Field, Jordan.
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: Release of their group members held in various jails of the hijacked aircraft’s nations.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists hijacked the Swiss jet for the purpose of releasing their comrades jailed in Switzerland for previous attack an the Israeli airliner at Zurich airport (February 1969)
*.1 terrorist was a female.
*.The aircraft was taken to Dawson’s Field (Jordan)
*. On 7 September, 127 women and children were released, except for Jewish-sound surname.
*. The aircraft was destroyed by explosives (12/9)


Date: 6 September 1970 ‘ Hijack Sunday’
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al Boeing 707
Flight No.: LY 219
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 145/10
Destination: En route from Tel Aviv to New- York via Amsterdam
Terrorists identification: PFLP+
Nicaraguan comrade named Patrick Arguello, a member of the Sandinistas terror group
Terrorist demands: Release of their group members held in various jails of the hijacked aircraft’s nations.
Casualties / Injuries: 1 Israeli air steward, Shlomo Vider was shot and badly wounded, but later recovered
Incident results /remarks:
*. Failure attempt:
The hijackers’ aim was to hijack 3 aircraft simultaneously.
*. The terrorists aim was to bring the El-Al jet to Jordan, together with another 2 hijacked western aircraft.
*. Khaled and her colleague, Patrick Arguello, a 27 year old Nicaraguan citizen(born in San Francisco) presented a Hunduran Passports, under the name of Maria Sanchez, managed smuggle pistol and 3 grenades despite the security check.
*.4 terrorists planned to hijack the El-Al aircraft .Only 2 were allowed to board. Khaled and her companion did not know that their 2 Senegal diplomatic-passports holders colleagues (who bought last minute first class tickets) were not allowed to board the jet following Israeli security officer suspicious.
*. An Israeli security officer (Moti Bar-Levav) shot dead Patrick Arguello.Khaled was fainted after the captain diverted the jet into negative G.The captain’s order later was not to shoot her.
*. The sky marshals were smuggled from onto other El-Al jet that was bound for Tel Aviv and that time was at Heathrow airport.


Date: 6 September 1970 ‘ Hijack Sunday’
Type of airline / aircraft: Pan-Am Boeing 747
Flight No.: PA93
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 153/17
Destination: En route from Brussels to Amsterdam. The aircraft was taken to Beirut for refueling.
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: Release of their group members held in various jails of the hijacked aircraft’s nations.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The 2 terrorists, named S?mi Abraham and Ali Assayed Ali, who were not allowed to board the El-Al jet, were transferred to the Pan-Am Jumbo jet bound for New-York and hijacked it after a stop-over at Amsterdam.
*. The Pan-Am Jumbo jet 747 was forced to land at Cairo, due to the difficulty in landing this huge jet at Dawson, then blown-up after evacuating all passengers.
*. Another reason for taking the Jumbo-jet to Cairo as well as blowing it up with explosives, was symbolic: protest against Egyptian acceptance of the US proposal for a peace initiative .


Date: 9 September 1970 ‘ Hijack Sunday’
Type of airline / aircraft: BOAC (British Overseas Airways Corporation)VC-10
Flight No.: 775
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 105/9
Destination: En route from Bombay to London. The aircraft was taken to Dawson Field, Jordan
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: Release of their group members held in various jails of the hijacked aircraft’s nations + Leila Khaled and Arguello’s body
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Since there was no British citizen among other aircraft hostages, the PFLF decided to hijack a British jet, for the purpose of releasing Leila Khaled.
*.The aircraft was taken to Dawson’s Field (Jordan)
*. The aircraft was destroyed by explosives(12/9)
*.All nations whose aircraft were hijacked agreed to release 7 jailed terrorists (including Leila Khaled) and Arguello’s body in exchange for the aircraft hostages


Date: 22 October 1970
Type of airline / aircraft: Lineas Areas Costaricenses SA,
C-46
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 44
Destination: Domestic flight
From Limon to San Jose. The aircraft was taken to Cuba
Terrorists identification: FSLN
Terrorist demands: Release of 4 Nicaraguan guerrillas
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks: *. Among the terrorists- 1 woman
*. The 4 prisoners were released and flown to Cuba with the terrorists.


Date: 22 January 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: Ethiopian Airlines, DC-3
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 23
Destination: Domestic flight
From Bahir Dar to Gondar.The aircraft was taken to Libya
Terrorists identification: Arab Liberation Front for Eritrea (ALFE)
Terrorist demands: Hand out leaflets
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:


Date: 30 January 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines Fokker F-27,
Flight No.: 422
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 28/4
Destination: En route from Srinagar and Jammu. The aircraft was taken Lahore (Pakistan
Terrorists identification: Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF
Terrorist demands: The release of 36 KLF prisoners jailed in Kashmir
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The first hijacking of Indian airliner
*. Terrorists’ names: Hashim Quershi and Mohammed Ashraf
*.Following this incident India closed its aerial space to Pakistani air transport.
*.All passengers were released upon arrival at Lahore, but not the cargo. On February 2, the aircraft was set on fire.
*. The terrorists were given political shelter in Pakistan, then received awards by Pakistani government. Later they were jailed in accusation of being ‘Indian spies’.


Date: 28 July 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ——-
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from Rome to Tel Aviv
Terrorists identification: PFLP-GC
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Failure attempt: the terrorists exploited an innocent girl to load a suitcase with explosives onto the aircraft


Date: 1 September 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers:
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from London to Tel Aviv
Terrorists identification: PFLP-GC
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Failure attempt: the terrorists exploited an unwitting Peruvian girl to load a bomb hidden in a cake onto the aircraft.


Date: 23 August 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: Alia-Royal Jordanian Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ——-
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from Amman to Madrid via Istanbul
Terrorists identification: Fatah
Terrorist demands:——-
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The attack was a retaliation for King Hussein’s acts against the Palestinians in Jordan.
*.The bomb exploded after landing at Madrid, damaging the tail fuselage.
*. It was suspected that the bomb was intended to go off in mid-air, aiming to cause the murder of Hussein’s Mother, Queen Mother Zien, who disembarked at Istanbul.


Date: 8 September 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: Alia-Royal Jordanian Airlines, Caravelle

Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from Beirut to Amman. The jet was diverted to Libya
Terrorists identification: Fatah
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorist, named Mohammed Jaber, served as a Lieutenant in the Fatah movement.
*. The terrorist was given asylum in Libya.


Date: 16 September 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: Alia-Royal Jordanian Airlines, Caravelle
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from Beirut to Amman
Terrorists identification: Fatah
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Failure attempt: The 17 year old terrorist, named Hilal Abdel Kader Ali wanted to divert the jet to Iraq. He was seized on board by a sky marshal.


Date: 4 October 1971
Type of airline / aircraft: Alia-Royal Jordanian Airlines, Caravelle
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Bound for Amman from Beirut
Terrorists identification: Fatah
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties.
Incident results /remarks:
*.Failure attempt: The sky marshal overpowered the terrorists, one of them- a female.


Date: 26 January 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Jugoslovenski Aerotransport, DC-9
Flight No.: 364
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ——
No. of passengers/crew/total: 22/6
Destination: En route from Stockholm to Zagreb via Copenhagen
Terrorists identification: Croatian National Movement
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 27 passengers and crew were murdered. Only 1 Stewardess had survived (Vensa Vulovic)
Incident results /remarks: The Croatian separatists claimed responsibility


Date: 19 February 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Royal Jordanian Airlines, Caravelle
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from Cairo to Amman
Terrorists identification: The Jordanian National Liberation Movement.
Terrorist demands: No casualties
Casualties / Injuries:?
Incident results /remarks: *.Failure attempt: The sky marshal overpowered the terrorist.


Date: 22 February 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Lufthansa Boeing 747
Flight No.: 649
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 172/14
Destination: En route from New Delhi to Frankfurt. The jet was taken to Aden
Terrorists identification: Palestinians (Organization of Victims of Zionist Occupation)
Terrorist demands: Release of 15 Jordanians under arrest in West Germany, and $ 5 Million ransom.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The 5 terrorists boarded at several airports: the first at Hong Kong; 2 more at Bangkok ; the last 2 at Delhi.
*. The skyjack leader was Yousef Khatib, who was one of the 3 who hijacked the El-Al Boeing 707 (July 1968).Another hijacker was Rifaat Kamal, who participated in the El-Al hijacking and in the Sabena hijacking (8 May, 1972).
*. All passengers were released, Women and children were released first.
*. Israel released 15 Palestinians in exchange for the hostages. The terrorists were paid $ 5 million by German authorities in exchange for the aircraft.


Date: 3 May 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Turkish Airlines, DC-9
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 61
Destination: Domestic flight En route from Ankara to Istanbul. The aircraft was taken to Sofia
Terrorists identification: TPLA:
Turkish Liberation Army (Nationalist Terrorists group
Terrorist demands: Release of 3 prisoners in Turkey
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
The hijackers surrendered after landing at Sofia, where they were granted political asylum


Date: 8 May 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Sabena, Boeing 707
Flight No.: 572
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 99/10
Destination: En route from Brussels to Tel -Aviv via Vienna
Terrorists identification: Release of 317 Arab prisoners held in Israeli jails
Terrorist demands: Release of 317 Arab prisoners held in Israeli jails
Casualties / Injuries: 1 passenger -Mary Holzberg
(22) was killed following the release operation, 2 passengers were injured.
*.2 male terrorists were killed, another female (Halsa) was injured.
Incident results /remarks:
*. 2 terrorists who were females, named Rima Issa Tannous (21), born in Bethlehem and Terese Halsa (19), born in Acre, daughter of a middle- class Arab family was a nursing student when she was required to the PFLP) ,who were responsible for smuggling the weapon on board. The other 2 terrorists were: Abdel Aziz al Atrash (33,’Zacharia’) from Beit Sahour near th city of Bethlehem; and the group leader Ali Taha Abu Snina (45,’Captain Kamal Riffat’),originally from Jerusalem who participated in the El-Al hijacking to Algiers (23 July, 1968) and the Lufthansa hijacking to Aden(February 1972).
*. The terrorists used fake Lebanese Italian, and Israeli passports.
*.The Captain (Reginald Levy) tried to shoot at Rifat with Rifat’s gun, but failed to do so due to the safety catch
*.The terrorist were equipped with Semtex bomb, which is considered as the first event where this kind of explosive was discovered in the west.
*.Israeli elite unit (‘Sayeret Matkal’) stormed the aircraft (‘Isotope operation’), and released the passengers, capturing the 2 female terrorists who were sentenced to 220 years each in prison. Tanus was released after seven years following prisoners exchange, Halsa was released after 11 years


Date: 16 August 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ——
No. of passengers/crew/total: 140/8
Destination: En route from Rome to Tel-Aviv.
Terrorists identification: PFLP-GC
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Failure attempt: The bomb, equipped with barometric detonator exploded over Rome, failing to bomb the jet, since it belly containers were strengthen, making them blast-resistant.
*. 200 grams of explosive hidden in a record player.
*. Damage to the rear door and hole in the baggage compartment
*. The record player bomb was given to 2 unwitting English women passengers.
*. The PFLP-GC member Marwan Khreesat was convicted.


Date: 15 September 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Scandinavian Airline System  (SAS), DC-9

Flight No.:SK130
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 86
 Destination: En route from Gotheenburg  to Stockholm. The aircraft was taken to Malmo, than to Madrid.
Terrorists identification: Croatian terrorists
Terrorist demands: The release of 7 jailed Croatian Nationalists and ransom
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
6 terrorists  were released  as well as ransom payment of  half a million Swedish Kroner . They were flown to Spain   .


Date: 22 October 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Turkish Airlines, Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 67/9
Destination: Domestic flight En route from Istanbul to Ankara. The aircraft was taken to Sofia.
Terrorists identification: ?
Terrorist demands: The release of 13 political prisoners jailed in Turkey and demand for instituted reforms
Casualties / Injuries: One pilot and one passenger were injured
Incident results /remarks:
Since the terrorists demands were releasing prisoners as well as implementing reforms, it seems that this incident had a political motivation.


Date: 29 October 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Lufthansa, Boeing 727
Flight No.: 615
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 13/7
Destination: En route from Damascus to Frankfurt to Munich. The jet was diverted to Zagreb.
Terrorists identification: Black September
Terrorist demands: The release of the 3 Black September members who had survived the Munich Olympics attack
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties.
Incident results /remarks:
*.The hijackers were Kassem Saleh from Yemen, and Samir El Shahed from Oman.
*.The terrorists threatened to divert the jet to Tel-Aviv or Munich and blow it up if their demands weren’t met..
*.The 3 jailed terrorists: Abdel Kadir El Dnawy;Ibrahim Badran and Abdullah Samir were released and flown to Zagreb, then to Libya


Date: 8 November 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Compania Mexicana de Aviacion, Boeing 727
Flight No.: 705
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 104/7
Destination: Domestic flight from Monterey to Mexico city
Terrorists identification: Armed Communist League
Terrorist demands: The release of 5 of their terrorists colleagues held in prison+ dropping charges against two other fugitives who joined them, 4 million pesos ($ 330,000) and automatic weapons and a doctor to assists a wounded prisoner
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Their demands were fulfilled.
*. The 4 terrorists and their 5 colleagues flew to Cuba.


Date: 8 December 1972
Type of airline / aircraft: Ethiopian Airlines, Boeing 720B
Flight No.: 708
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 7
No. of passengers/crew/total: 94
Destination: En route from Addis Ababa to Paris via Asmara
Terrorists identification: Arab Liberation Front for Eritrea (ALFE)
Terrorist demands: Release of group members jailed in Ethiopia
Casualties / Injuries: 9 passengers were injured following a hand grenade explosion caused by a passenger who threw the grenade to the empty part of the cabin after it had fallen from a wounded hijacker’s hand.
*.All the terrorists were killed, of them- 2 were women
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft landed safely in Addis Ababa.


Date: 9 April 1973
Type of airline / aircraft: Arkia (Israel charter Airline) Viscount 800
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Nicosia airport Cyprus
Terrorists identification: ANYLP(Arab Nationalist Youth for the Liberation of Palestine)
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties.
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists crashed through the gates , driving on the tarmac in 2 cars, shooting at the Arkia aircraft with machine guns. All the passengers had already disembarked.
*. 2 terrorists were killed, the others were captured.
*. The aircraft was damaged following a collision with the terrorists’ jeep .


Date: 18 May 1973
Type of airline / aircraft: AVENSA Convair 580
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 37/5
Destination: Domestic flight
From Velera to Barquisime. The aircraft was taken to Cuba via Mexico city
Terrorists identification: People’s Revolutionary Army (Zero Point) , a Left -Wing group
Terrorist demands: Release of 79 political members from Venezuelan jails.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Among the 4 terrorists- one was a woman.
*The terrorists were given political asylum


Date: 20 July 1973
Type of airline / aircraft: Japan Airlines-Boeing 747
Flight No.: 404
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 155
Destination: En route from Paris to Tokyo and Anchorage via Amsterdam. The aircraft was taken to Dubai, than to Benghazi in Libya (July 24)
Terroristsidentification: Japan Red Army (JRA) and Palestinians
1 of them- a female
Terrorist demands: The release of Kozo Okomoto of the Lod Massacre+ $ 5 million ransom
Casualties / Injuries: The flight Purser was injured.
Incident results /remarks:
*. Accidental explosion of the explosive device caused the death of the female hijacker and injured the Purser and smashing one of the cabin windows.
*. All passengers were released,then the aircraft was destroyed.
*. The attack was a retaliation against Japan, for paying Israel some compensation following the Japanese red army attack (‘Lod Massacre’ (30 May 1972), and protesting against ‘Imperialism’.
*. The 5 terrorists were released by the Libyan authorities.


Date: 5 September 1973
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total:?
Destination: Fiumicino Airport (Rome
Terrorists identification: ‘Black September’
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Failure attempt:
Intelligence foiled the planned attack: Italian police raided a flat overlooking the airport runway and arrested 5 Palestinians who were caught just as they were about to launch SA-7 rocket at El-Al jet, taxiing into position for take-off.
*.This is the first reported attempt to use MANPADS against a civilian aircraft
*. One of the terrorists was Amin al Hindi, now days executive official of the Palestinian Authority.
*. The El-Al captain jet was Uri Bar-Lev, who was captain of the El-Al flight 219 jet that was planned to be hijacked on September, 6, 1970.


Date: 25 November 1973
Type of airline / aircraft: KLM, Boeing 747
Flight No.: 861
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 247/17
Destination: Bound from Beirut to New Delhi. The aircraft was taken to Syria, Cyprus, Libya and Malta,
Terrorists identification: Arab Nationalist Youth for the Liberation of Palestine
Terrorist demands: The release of their terrorist members jailed in Cyprus as well as stopping Dutch assistance to Israel
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. All passengers were released.
*. The terrorists received safe passage guarantee from Dubai.


Date: 17 December 1973 ‘Double attack’
Type of airline / aircraft: Pan-Am Boeing 707
Flight No.: PA 110
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 69
Destination: Fiumicino airport
The aircraft was bounded to Tehran via Beirut
Terrorists identification: Arab Nationalist Youth for the Liberation of Palestine
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: 30 passengers were murdered and 18 injured
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists opened fire and threw grenades through the aircraft’s open doors.
*. The aircraft was completely destroyed.


Date: 17 December 1973 ‘Double attack’
Type of airline / aircraft: Lufthansa Boeing 737
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: En route from Rome to Munich.
The aircraft was forced to fly to Athens, then to Damascus, then to Kuwait
Terrorists identification: Arab Nationalist Youth for the Liberation of Palestine
Terrorist demands: The release of 2 Palestinians terrorists jailed in Greece.
Casualties / Injuries: 2 passengers were murdered during the ground attack, another passenger was murdered during taxiing, his body dumped on the Athens airport runway.
*.1 Italian customs agent was shot, later died.
Incident results /remarks:
The terrorists surrendered later after arriving at Kuwait. They were released in exchange for hijacked British Airways jet.
*. Following the terrorists’ interrogation, they revealed that the original plan was to assassinate the UN Secretary General K. Waldheim and Henry Kissinger, who were supposed to be arriving at Beirut Airport.


Date: 3 March 1974
Type of airline / aircraft: British Airways, VC-10
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 92/10
Destination: En route from Bombay to London via Beirut. The aircraft was taken to Schiphol airport (Amsterdam)
Terrorists identification: Arab Nationalist Youth for the Liberation of Palestine
Terrorist demands: Drawing attention to the Palestinian issue
Casualties / Injuries:. No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.After planting explosives, the terrorists blown up the aircraft
*.The PLO denied any responsibility for this operation.


Date: 15 July 1974
Type of airline / aircraft: Japan Airlines, DC-8
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 89
Destination: Domestic flight From Osaka to Tokyo
Terrorists identification: JRA
Terrorist demands: The release of JRA leader Takaya Shiomi, and taking him and the leader to North Korea
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The passengers evacuated the jet during refuel at Nagoya Airport, Japan, not before capturing the hijacker.


Date: ) 7 September 1974
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA, Boeing 707
Flight No.: 841
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ——-
No. of passengers/crew/total: 79/9
Destination: Bound for New-York via Athens, from Tel Aviv
Terrorists identification: PFLP-GC
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 88 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was blown up over the Ionian Sea.
*. The bomb had been put aboard at Athens, and was detonated in the aft cargo compartment.


Date: 22 November 1974
Type of airline / aircraft: British Airways, VC-10
Flight No.: BA 870
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 22/13
Destination: En route from London to Brunei, via Dubai, where the aircraft was hijacked. The aircraft was taken to Libya, then Tunisia
Terrorists identification: Abu Nidal (ANO))
Terrorist demands: Release of 13 Palestinians held in Egyptian and Netherland’s jails
Casualties / Injuries: 1 passenger German passenger named Werner Gustav Kehl was murdered. Another Indian air hostess was shot and injured.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The Tunisian government released 13 terrorists held in Egypt, and another 2 held in the Netherlands for previous British-Airways VC-10 hijacking (March 1974)
*. All 15 terrorists surrendered upon arrival at Tunis. the Tunisian authorities handed them to the PLO, who denied any links to the hijackers.


Date: 13 January 1975
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 136/7
Destination: ‘Orly’ Airport (France). The aircraft was bounded for New-York.
Terrorists identification: Black September /’Mohammed Boudia Commando’ and Carlos ‘The Jackal’
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 3 passengers of the JAT DC-9 aircraft suffered injuries. No casualties or victims among the Israeli jet..
Incident results /remarks:
*. The first time where rockets (RPG-7) were fired at an aircraft by terrorists.
*. Carlos the Jackal and Johannes Weinrich were the terrorists who fired the rockets at the El-Al aircraft sitting on the tarmac at Orly airport
*. The rockets struck a Yugoslavian airliner- DC-9.
*. A phone call to the Reuters news agency in Paris claimed that the attack was conducted by the ‘Mohamed Boudia Commando’, another call to the Agence France Presse office in Beirut said that the Black September had conducted the attack.
*.Boudia was the PFLP chief operative in Paris, and was assassinated by Israeli intelligence service (‘Mossad’) .


Date: 25 January 1976
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: 6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 100
Destination: During a stopover at Nairobi’s Embakasi International Airport from Johannesburg to Tel Aviv
Terrorists identification: PFLP-Waddi Haddad Faction + Baader Meinhof
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties.
Incident results /remarks:
*.Failure attempt:
Intelligence foiled the planned attack. The missiles were SA-7 (Strella), positioned under a tree outside the airports perimeter
*. The Baader Meinhof members (one of them- a female) were Thomas Reuter and Brigitte Shcultz, both were holding fake Cyprus passports
*.The six terrorists (of them two Badder -meinhof members who were requited by the PFLP and were given the names of Slava and Hassan), were brought to Israel for trial.


Date: 7 April 1976
Type of airline / aircraft: Philippine Airlines (PAL),BAC One -Eleven
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 72
Destination: Domestic flight
Cagay de Oro to Mactan. The aircraft was taken to Kuala Lampur and Bangkok.
Terrorists identification: Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
Terrorist demands: Release of political prisoners and $ 300,000 ransom
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The MNLF is a Muslim oriented organization, fighting in the Southern Philippines since 1972.
*. The terrorists released the passengers at Manila airport except 11 crew members and PAL vice president
*. The terrorists flew in another PAL aircraft (DC-8)from Pakistan to Libya.


Date: 21 May 1976
Type of airline / aircraft: Philippine Airlines (PAL),BAC One -Eleven
Flight No.: PAL 116
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers:6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 97/6
Destination: Domestic flight
Davao to Manila. The terrorists forced the pilot to fly to Zamboanga (Philippines)
Terrorists identification: Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
Terrorist demands: 375,000 $ ransom and another aircraft for the purpose of flying to Libya
Casualties / Injuries: 16 passengers were murdered + 19 injured
Incident results /remarks:
*.14 women and children and other 2 passengers and 1 cabin attendant were released
*. Special anti hijack force (AVESCOM) stormed the aircraft
*. The terrorists threw hand grenades, causing the massive casualties. 3 terrorists were killed
*. The terrorists managed to smuggle their weapons in their clothing.


Date: 27 June 1976 ‘Operation Thunder ball’
Type of airline / aircraft: Air-France Airbus A-300
Flight No.: 139
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers:4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 247/12
Destination: Tel-Aviv bound to Paris via Athens.
The aircraft was taken to Benghazi and then to Entebbe.
Terrorists identification: PFLP -Waddi Hadad Faction with Rote Armee Faction (RAF), headed by Wilfred Boese
Terrorist demands: Release of their 53 accomplices held in jails In Israel, Germany, Switzerland, Kenya and France, including the 5 terrorists involved in the January 25 planned MANPADS attack at Nairobi Airport
Casualties / Injuries: 3 passengers and the Israeli commander Yonatan Netanyahu were killed.
*. 1 soldier was badly wounded and remained invalid (Surin Hershko)
*.Another hostage, Dora Bloch was murdered later by Ugandan soldiers after being hospitalized in Ugandan hospital.
*. 6 terrorists were killed, including Wilfreid Boese.
Incident results /remarks:
*. 4 terrorists boarded the Air-France at Athens, after disembarking Singapore Airlines flight 763, bound for Athens from Bahrain via Kuwait. Among the terrorists: 2 PFLP Arab members, 1 German male, later identified as the hijackers leader named Wilfred Boese, and 1 Ecuadorian passport holder, 25 yeas old female, named Gabriel Krocher-Tiedemann, both members of the RAF.
*.The aircraft was renamed ‘Haifa’ by the terrorists.
*. All non- Israelis were later released: 105 Israeli passengers were held as hostages
*. The Air-France captain Michel Bacos and his crew, refused to leave Entebbe unless all the hostages were released.
*. Another 3 terrorists joined the hijackers at Entebbe .
*. Israeli elite unit rescued the hostages
*.The first hijacking, where a national leader (Idi Amin) supported the hijackers in public.
*.There is still a mystery about the 8th terrorist who had managed to escape. Rumors were that it was none other than Illich Ramirez Sanchez, known as ‘Carlos the Jackal’.


Date: 23 August 1976
Type of airline / aircraft: Egypt Air, Boeing 737
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 95
Destination: Domestic flight
En route from Cairo to Luxor.
Terrorists identification: Libyan-affiliated terrorists
Terrorist demands: Release of 5 prisoners including 3 Libyan’s jailed in Egypt for planning to assassinate former Libyan minister, a Yemeni and a Palestinian terrorist awaiting trail following an attempt to assassinate former South Yemen prime minister, Mohammed Ali Haithem
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft landed at Luxor, due to fuel shortage, although the main destination was Libya
*.The Egyptian special force disguised as mechanics stormed the aircraft.
*. Egyptian Prime Minister asserted that the terrorists were acting under orders from Libyan leader, Gadafi and that the aircraft was supposed to be taken to Libya.


Date: 5 September 1976
Type of airline / aircraft: KLM, DC-9
Flight No.: 366
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 82
Destination: En route from Nice to Amsterdam. The aircraft was taken to Tunis and Cyprus
Terrorists identification: PFLP
Terrorist demands: Release of 8 Palestinians jailed in Israel
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Israeli Radio report stated that among the Palestinian terrorists whose release was demanded were Kozo Okomoto and Archbishop Capucci, who was involved in weaponry smuggling.
*. The terrorists released the passenger at Larnaca Airport. After their arrest they claimed that they got orders from the Libyan- based unit of the PFLP.
*. The attack is affiliated to the PFLP, although Habash decision to abandon this tactic already in 1972.


Date: 10 September 1976
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA Boeing 727
Flight No.: 355
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 86/7
Destination: En route from New York to Chicago. The aircraft was taken to Montreal, Gander, Iceland and Paris
Terrorists identification: Croatian nationalists from the ‘Croatian National Liberation Forces'(all Americans-born Yugoslavs)
Terrorist demands: Publication of their ‘Declaration of Croatian independence in front pages of Americans newspapers and dropping leaflets over London and Paris by another Boeing 707.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Among the hijackers, one was a female named Julienne Busic, one of the hijackers’ wife.
*.The terrorists threatened to blow up the jet if their demands to publicize their manifest were not met
*. The passengers were given leaflets to read by the hijackers, explaining their cause for hijacking the aircraft (‘Declaration of the Headquarters of the Croatian National Liberation Forces’)
*.30 passengers were released in Gander.
*. Leaflets were dropped over London, others leaflets were dropped by the released passengers over Montreal. An escorting TWA Boeing 707 jet dropped the leaflets over Paris before landing with the hijacked jet at Charles de Gaulle airport. The hijackers surrendered to the French authorities. The Croatians were convicted in New-York city court
*. The terrorist leader was the Croatian nationalist Zvonko Busic.
*. The ‘bombs’ held by the hijackers appeared to be fake.
*. A bomb placed by the hijackers in the Bronx exploded in New-York. 1 police officer was killed, 3 injured.


Date: 6 October 1976
Type of airline / aircraft: Cubana Airlines, DC-8
Flight No.: 45
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 73
Destination: Bound for Cuba from Barbados via Jamaica and Guyana
Terrorists identification: El Condor-exiled Cubans living in Florida and Venezuela
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 73 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. 1 suspect passport was issued by the Venezuelan Government under instructions of the police department.
*.On October 1976, Trinidad police arrested 2 Cubans who had disembarked the aircraft living their luggage behind.


Date: 25 April 1977
Type of airline / aircraft: Ethiopian Airlines, DC-3
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total:?
Destination: Domestic flight from Makele to Gondar
Terrorists identification: ELF (Eritrean Liberation Front Guerrilla Organization)
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: 3 passengers were injured
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists were shot by security guards
*.Since the guerrilla hijackers targeted a civilian aircraft, it will be considered as terrorism


Date: 28 September 1977
Type of airline / aircraft: Japan Airlines (JAL),DC-8
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 156
Destination: En route from Paris to Tokyo via Bombay. The aircraft was taken to Dacca (Bangladesh)
Terrorists identification: JRA (Japanese Red Army) + PFLP-Waddi Hadad faction
Terrorist demands: Release of their 6 group members held in jails and $ 6 million ransom
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists threatened to murder passengers and to blow up the jet if their demands were not met.
*. Japanese Government released 6 prisoners and paid $ 6 million ransom. The terrorists received political asylum in Algeria.
*. Following this incident, the Japanese government replaced 5,600,000 passports with new ones, after realizing that the terrorists used false passports, and boarded at Bombay airport. This counter-step was followed by other security measures, aimed at protecting the Japanese airlines from aerial violence.


Date: 13 October 1977
Type of airline / aircraft: Lufthansa Boeing 737
Flight No.: 181
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 486/5
Destination: En route from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt. The aircraft was taken to Rome, Larnaca, Dubai and Aden than to Mogadishu (Somalia)
Terrorists identification: PFLP- Waddi Hadad faction and RAF
(Previously Baader Meinhof)
Terrorist demands: Release of 11 German Red Army accomplices held in Germany and 2 Palestinians held in Turkey and ransom of 15 Million $
Casualties / Injuries: *. The pilot was shot dead in front of the passengers. His body was dumped on the runway.
*Another four and one German officer were injured.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists boarded at the last minute, avoiding the usual inspection. Among them: 2 women, one of them named Souhalia Al Sayeh.
*. The pilot was murdered after the terrorists realized that he had managed to pass essential information over the radio, information that was vital for the rescue operation.
*. The German GSG-9 elite unit launched a rescue operation, released the hostages and killed the 3 male terrorists, among them: Zohair Youssef Akache, known as ‘Captain Martyr Mahmoud’.
*. Al-Sayeh was arrested in Somalia but released later (1978)and went to Baghdad following Waddi Hadad threats to attack Somali interests. Other sources claim that she was arrested in Norway in 1991 and later extradited to Germany to stand trial.
*. The terrorists failure caused the suicide of the Baader Meinhof gang (later known as the RAF), held in German prison.


Date: 3 September 1978
Type of airline / aircraft: Air Rhodesia, Viscount 782D
Flight No.: 825
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 4/52
Destination: Domestic flight En route from Karibe to Salisbory
Terrorists identification: Joshua Nkomo’s Zimbabwe Peoples Revolution Army (Zipra)
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: 38 passengers were murdered. including 10 passengers who, surviving the crash, were later shot dead by the terrorists.
Incident results /remarks:
38 passengers were murdered.including 10 passengers who, surviving the crash, were later shot dead by the terrorists.


Date: 7 September 1978
Type of airline / aircraft: Air Ceylon, Hawker 748
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Ground Sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 2
Destination: Ratmalana-Colombo Airport
Terrorists identification: LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam)
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: Pilot and Co-Pilot were injured
Incident results /remarks:
*.One of the first major terrorists acts conducted by the LTTE
*. The bomb detonated at 08:40 when the cockpit crew were preparing the plane for a ferry flight.
*.The Turboprop plane caught fire and destroyed.


Date: 20 December 1978
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 410
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 12/12
Destination: Domestic flight En route from Lucknow to Delhi. The aircraft was taken to Varanasi
Terrorists identification: Indians members of Youth Congress
Terrorist demands: Release of former PM Indira Ghandi, who at that time was in jail
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Since the motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 12 January 1979
Type of airline / aircraft: Tunis Air, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 75
Destination: Domestic flight from Tunis to Djerba.The aircraft was taken to Tripoli after Malta’s refusal to permit landing
Terrorists identification: Tunisian Terrorists
Terrorist demands: The release of Tunisian union Official Habib Achou and a former Tunisian foreign minister, Mohammed Masmoudi
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
The terrorists surrendered upon landing in Libya.


Date: 16 January 1979
Type of airline / aircraft: Lebanese Middle East Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 73
Destination: En route from Beirut to Amman
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: The release of Moslem leader- Imam Mousa Sader, who had disappeared during an official visit to Libya in August 1978) and demanding a press conference
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
The terrorists surrendered after landing in Beirut.
*. One of the hijackers was allowed to set up a press conference at Beirut airport to expose their group’s grievances.


Date: 12 February 1979
Type of airline / aircraft: Air Rhodesia, Viscount 748D
Flight No.: 827
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 54/5
Destination: Domestic flight En route Victoria falls to Salisbory via Karibe
Terrorists identification: Joshua Nkomo’s Zimbabwe Peoples Revolution Army (Zipra)
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 59 passengers and crew were murdered.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was hit by SA-7 Missiles.
*. According to the terrorist leader, Joshua Nkomo, the aircraft had been scheduled to carry a Rhodesian Army commander (Lieutenant General Walls), and therefore the aircraft was a legitimate military target.


Date: 7 September 1979
Type of airline / aircraft: Alitalia, DC-8 Super 62
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 183
Destination: En route from Beirut to Rome. The aircraft was taken Rome, then to Tehran.
Terrorists identification: Imam Sader Movement
(Amal affiliation)
Terrorist demands Protesting and denouncing Libya leader for the disappearance of the Imam Mousa Sader:
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. All passengers were released at Rome airport
*. The terrorists surrendered after landing ay Tehran, following a statement broadcast on the radio and television.


Date: 14 January 1980
Type of airline / aircraft Alitalia, DC-9:
Flight No.: 83
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 83/6
Destination: En route from Rome to Tunis
Terrorists identification: Tunisian terrorist
Terrorist demands: The release of 25 Political prisoners held by Tunisian Government
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorist surrendered after landing in Sicily.
*. Since the aim was to release political prisoners, the incident is considered as terrorism.


Date: 18 January 1980
Type of airline / aircraft: Lebanese Middle-East Airlines (MEA), Boeing 720B
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 72/9
Destination: En route from Beirut to Larnaca
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: A commission inquiry for the disappearance of the Imam Mousa Sader
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorist, Fuad Hammudah surrendered to the Beirut police a few hours after the aircraft landed at Beirut.
*.Since the incident has a political orientation, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 28 January 1980
Type of airline / aircraft: Lebanese Middle-East Airlines (MEA), Boeing 720B
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 137
Destination: En route from Baghdad to Beirut
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: A commission inquiry for the disappearance of the Imam Mousa Sader
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist,Ali Issa (28) boarded the plane with his wife and 4 children. The terrorist surrendered upon being given a press conference.
*.Since the incident has a political orientation, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 31 January 1980
Type of airline / aircraft: Air France
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Beirut Airport
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: Drew attention to the disappearance of the Iranian Imam Mousa Sader, a religious leader in Libya
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks: Failure attempt: the 3, armed with pistols and hand grenades, were arrested at the Beirut Airport before they managed to board the aircraft.


Date: 21 April 1980
Type of airline / aircraft: El Al, Boeing
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total:?
Destination: Zurich airport bound for Tel Aviv
Terrorists identification: Arab terrorists
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Failure attempt: The bomb was hidden in the luggage of an unwitting West-German citizen. The bomb was discovered by Israeli security officers. The bomb exploded in a police lab before it was defused.


Date: 13 October 1980
Type of airline / aircraft: Turkish Airlines, Boeing 727
Flight No.: 890
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total:148
Destination: En route from Istanbul to Ankara, originated in Munich
Terrorists identification: Amal terrorists
Terrorist demands: Demanded to be flown to Teheran
Casualties / Injuries: 6 passengers and 1 flight attendant were injured
Incident results /remarks:
.*The terrorists’ pistols were smuggled on board after being hidden inside carved-out copies of Koran.
*. 40 passengers were released after stopover at Diyarbakir for refueling. Turkish troops stormed the aircraft injuring all 4 terrorists
*. The terrorists announced that the plane was now under the control of the Sheria (Islamic law).


Date: 15 December 1980
Type of airline / aircraft: Avianca Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 7
No. of passengers/crew/total: 137
Destination: Domestic flight from Bogota to Pereira. The aircraft was taken to Cuba.
Terrorists identification: Colombian M(April)-19 group.
Terrorist demands: Disrupting a Nation Latin American summit in Colombia
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Since the motive appears to be political affiliation, it will be considered as terrorism.
*. The passengers were released.


Date: 2 March 1981
Type of airline / aircraft: Pakistan Airlines (PIA), Boeing 707
Flight No.: 326
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total:115
Destination: Domestic flight from Karachi to Peshawar. The aircraft was taken to Kabul (Afghanistan), then to Damascus
Terrorists identification: al-Zulfikar extremists (pro former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was executed in 1979)
Terrorist demands: Release of leftist political prisoners held in Pakistani jails.
Casualties / Injuries: 1 Pakistani diplomat passenger named Tariq Rahim was murdered and his body was dumped on the runway after landing at Kabul
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists’ leader was a Pakistani citizen named Salamullah Khan
* 55 prisoners were released as well as payment of $ 50000 ransom. The terrorists surrendered after Syria agreed to give them asylum and the event was over after 13 days.


Date: 27 March 1981
Type of airline / aircraft: Servicio Aereo de Honduras, Boeing 727
Flight No.: 414
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 87
Destination: Domestic flight from Tegucigalpa to San Pedro. The aircraft was taken to Managua and later to Panama City
Terrorists identification: Opponents of the Honduran Government
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks: Since the motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 28 March 1981
Type of airline / aircraft: Garauda Indonesian Airlines, DC-9
Flight No.: GA 206
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total:?
Destination: Domestic flight from Palembang to Medah
Terrorists identification: Jihad Commando Group
Terrorist demands: Release of Jihad Commandos imprisoned In Indonesia, and $ 1.5 million.
Casualties / Injuries: The pilot was shod dead by the hijacker as well as another anti-terrorist team member
Incident results /remarks:
*. The jet was stormed by the Indonesian special force, the Kophasanda, killing the terrorists.
*.It was stated later by the Indonesian intelligence that the terrorists’ goal was to overthrow the government and to create an Islamic state.


Date: 24 May 1981
Type of airline / aircraft: Turkish Airlines, DC-9
Flight No.: 104
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 84
Destination: Domestic flight from Istanbul to Ankara. The aircraft was taken to Bulgaria
Terrorists identification: DHKP-C (leftist Turkish nationals)
Terrorist demands: The release of 47 jailed terrorists held in Turkey and ransom of $ 500,000
Casualties / Injuries: 4 passengers were injured while overpowering the hijackers
Incident results /remarks:
2 terrorists were overpowered after disembarking the jet, following Turkish permission to permit a news conference. The other 2 terrorists on board were overpowered by the passengers after the pilot gunned the engines.


Date: 29 September 1981
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 425
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers:6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 111/6
Destination: Domestic flight en route from Delhi to Srinigar via Amritsar.
The aircraft was taken to Lahore
Terrorists identification: Khalistani Sikh youths
Terrorist demands: The release of their Khalistan leader, Sant Bhinderanwale, 500,000 U.S Dollars and Asylum in Pakistan
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Pakistani commandos, disguised as cleaners, stormed the aircraft, released the passengers and arrested the hijackers.
*. The hijacker’s weapons were daggers that they were allowed to be taken on board..


Date: 25 November 1981
Type of airline / aircraft: Air India, Boeing 707
Flight No.: AL 224
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 44
No. of passengers/crew/total: 79
Destination: En route from Bombay to Seychelles. The aircraft was taken to Durban (South Africa
Terrorists identification: Opponents of the Seychelles local government
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists surrendered after 6 hours of negotiation at Durban airport
*.Since the motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 7 December 1981 ‘The triplejacking’
Type of airline / aircraft: Linea Aeropostal Venezolana, DC-9
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers:3
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Domestic flight
from Caracas to Puerto Ordaz. The aircraft was finally taken to Cuba.
Terrorists identification: CREB-Salvadoran Leftists and Puerto Rican Independistas
Terrorist demands: The release of 23 political prisoners jailed in Venezuela and $ 10 million ransom and publication of manifesto citing their political complaints and demands.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The CREB terrorists highlighted their solidarity with the El Salvador Guerrillas and distributed leaflets on behalf of the CIMRL- Commandos Internationales Manuel Rojas Luzardo..Another source refers to the M-19 Colombian group, or to the FMLN (Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front).


Date: 7 December 1981 ‘The triplejacking’
Type of airline / aircraft: Linea Aeropostal Venezolana, DC-9
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Domestic flight
from Caracas to Puerto Ordaz. The aircraft was finally taken to Cuba.
Terrorists identification: CREB-Salvadoran Leftists and Puerto Rican Independistas
Terrorist demands: The release of 23 political prisoners jailed in Venezuela and $ 10 million ransom, and publication of manifesto citing their political complaints and demands
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The CREB terrorists highlighted their solidarity with the El Salvador Guerrillas and distributed leaflets on behalf of the CIMRL- Commandos Internationales Manuel Rojas Luzardo. Another source refers to the M-19 Colombian group, or to the FMLN (Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front).


Date: 7 December 1981 ‘The triplejacking’
Type of airline / aircraft: Linea Aeropostal Venezolana, Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 7
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Domestic flight
En route from Caracas to San Antonio Detachira. The aircraft was finally taken to Cuba.
Terrorists identification: CREB-Salvadoran Leftists and Puerto Rican Independistas
Terrorist demands: The release of 23 political prisoners jailed in Venezuela and $ 10 million ransom, and publication of manifesto citing their political complaints and demands.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. A total of 262 passengers were on board the 3 hijacked aircraft
*. During the stopovers, passengers (mainly women and children) were released in exchange for maps of Central America, food and fuel.


Date: 7 December 1981
Type of airline / aircraft: Libyan Arab Airlines, Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 47
Destination: En route from Zurich to Tripoli. The aircraft was taken to Beirut, then to Athens, Rome, Tehran and again back to Beirut
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: The return of the disappeared Iranian Imam Mousa Sader, a religious leader, after a visit in Libya
Casualties / Injuries: 1 passenger was shot and wounded at Beirut airport
Incident results /remarks:
2 other Shiite members boarded at Beirut.


Date: 27 January 1982
Type of airline / aircraft: Aerotal Colombia, Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 9
No. of passengers/crew/total: 128
Destination: Domestic flight from Bogot? to Pereira. The aircraft was forced to return to Bogota, then to Cali,
Terrorists identification: Colombian
M-19 group.
Terrorist demands: Talking to a journalist and the release of the M-19 jailed leader Jaime Bateman and permitting him contest the presidency
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. 47 passengers were released at Cali.
*. Damage was caused to the jet following a collision with army which had blocked the runway, followed by gunfire caused by the army assault attempt.
*. A corporate jet took the terrorists to Cuba, in exchange for 2 hostages.


Date: 24 February 1982
Type of airline / aircraft: Kuwait Airways, Boeing 707
Flight No.: 538
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: 12
No. of passengers/crew/total: 105
Destination: Beirut International Airport
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: Drew attention to the disappearance of the Iranian Imam Mousa Sader, a religious leader in Libya
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists threatened to blow up the jet unless they were permitted to take off.


Date: 26 February 1982
Type of airline / aircraft: Air Tanzania, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 206
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 99
Destination: Domestic flight from Mwanza to Dar-es-Salam. The aircraft was taken to Nairobi, Jeddah, Athens and finally to Stansted airport, England.
Terrorists identification: Tanzanian Revolutionary Youth Movement
Terrorist demands: The resignation of the Tanzanian president, Julius Nyerere
Casualties / Injuries: The co-pilot was shot and wounded
Incident results /remarks:?


Date: 28 April 1982
Type of airline / aircraft: Aerovias Nacionales de Honduras, Dash 7
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack:Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 48
Destination: Domestic flight from La Ceiba to San Pedro Sula
Terrorists identification: The terrorists announced that their group opposed the Honduran Government
Terrorist demands: The release of 86 prisoners and 1 million Lempiras ransom and publication of political statemen
Casualties / Injuries: 2 passengers suffered injuries
Incident results /remarks:
*. Since the hijackers’ demand was publishing a political statement, it will be considered as terrorism.
*. All the passengers were released.
*. The terrorists were flown to Cuba.


Date: 25 July 1982
Type of airline / aircraft: CAAC(China Airlines), Illushin 18
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Domestic flight from Xian to Shanghai
Terrorists identification:?
Terrorist demands:?
Casualties / Injuries: 12 passengers were injured
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists threw explosives on board, causing damage to the fuselage
*.The aircraft managed to land at Shanghai.


Date: 4 August 1982
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Boeing 737
Flight No.: IC 423
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 87/6
Destination: En route from Delhi to Srinigar via Amritsar. The aircraft was not permitted to land at Lahore, and landed at Amritsar.
Terrorists identification: Khalistan supporters
Terrorist demands: The hijacker demanded to meet his leader, Sant Bhinderanwale as well as ransom demand.
Casualties / Injuries: The terrorist surrendered after releasing the women and children
Incident results /remarks:
*. The captain was V.K Metha, who was hijacked again on 24 August 1984 (IC-421)
*. One of the airhostess, Suman ain, was hijacked in 1976 when his aircraft was taken to Lahore.
*. The terrorists who entered the cockpit had fake bombs, later revealed as an orange and a toy which he said was a time-bomb.


Date: 11 August 1982
Type of airline / aircraft: Pan-Am, Boeing 747
Flight No.: PA 830
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total:285
Destination: En route from Tokyo to Honolulu
Terrorists identification: Mohammed Rashid, member of the ‘Abu Ibrahim 15 May Faction’/ ‘Hawari Group
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 1 Japanese teenaged passenger named Toru Ozawa (15) was murdered, another 15 passengers suffered injuries.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft managed to land despite the damage to the fuselage.
*. The bomb was hidden in a cigarette carton. Its detonator was of a pressure type: as soon as someone sits on the seat, it activates the bomb. Fortunately, a mistake was made by the terrorists, causing the shock waves to go to the front and rear, rather than to the side and down, a fact that could cause far more damage to the jet fuselage
*.Muhammed Rashid was arrested in Greece,and sentenced to 15 years in prison. He was released in December 1996 after only 8 years due to ‘good behavior’. In June 1998 he was captured by the US.


Date: 20 August 1982
Type of airline / aircraft Indian Airlines, Boeing 737:
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 61/6
Destination: En rout from Bombay to Delhi via Udaipur and Jodhpur. The aircraft was taken to Amritsar, after Pakistani refusal to land at Lahore.
Terrorists identification: Khalistan supporter
Terrorist demands:
Casualties / Injuries: Security forces stormed the aircraft, killed the hijacker
(Musibat Singh)
and released
the passengers.
Incident results /remarks:?


Date: 22 June 1983
Type of airline / aircraft: Libyan Arab Airlines, Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 32
Destination: En route from Athens to Tripoli
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: Release of the disappeared Iranian Imam Mousa Sader, a religious leader in Libya
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The 2 terrorists were identified as Radja Aref Ahmed (19), and Hasan Mahti Saadun Hajj (17).
* All passengers were released.
*.The ticking bomb, installed in a Polaroid camera, was left in the terrorists’ luggage, and found hours after the passengers release at Larnaca airport.


Date: 6 July 1983
Type of airline / aircraft: Iran Air , Boeing 747
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 6
No. of passengers/crew/total: 371
Destination: Domestic flight from Shiraz to Tehran. The aircraft was taken to Kuwait then to Paris
Terrorists identification: Moujahedeen Opposition to Ayatollah Komeini
Terrorist demands: Achieving international attention for the political issue in Iran.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists surrendered at Orly airport, given political asylum by France. They stated that they had hijacked the aircraft ‘Simply to let the world know that in Iran there were 100,000 political prisoners and 30,000 executions by official account.


Date: 29 August 1983
Type of airline / aircraft Air France Boeing 727:
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 119
Destination: En route from Paris to Vienna
The aircraft was taken to Tehran
Terrorists identification: Hezbollah
Terrorist demands: The termination of French military involvement in Chad and release of Palestinian terrorists from France (including members of the Lebanese Armed Revolutionary faction
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists surrendered after 3 days of negotiations.


Date: 23 September 1983
Type of airline / aircraft: Gulf Air, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 71
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 105/6
Destination: En route from Karachi to Manama (Bahrain)
Terrorists identification: Abu Nidal (ANO
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 111 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. The bomb was placed in the cargo compartment.
*. Some luggage articles were placed on board while the ticket holder did not board the flight


Date: 8 November 1983
Type of airline / aircraft: Lineas Aereas de Angola (TAAG-Angola Airlines),
Boeing 737
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 126/4
Destination: En route to Luanda
Terroristsidentification: UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola)
Terrorist demands:——
Casualties / Injuries: All 130 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was struck at an altitude of 8000 feet while climbing.


Date: 9 February 1984
Type of airline / aircraft: Lineas Aereas de Angola (TAAG-Angola Airlines),
Boeing 737
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 136/6
Destination: After taking-off from Huambo Airport
Terrorists identification: Congolese Nationalists
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The aircraft managed to land after it had been damaged by a MANPADS.
*. Since the target was a civilian aircraft, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 5 July 1984
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Airbus A-300
Flight No.: IC 405
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 8
No. of passengers/crew/total: 255/9
Destination: En route from Srinagar to Delhi. The aircraft was taken to Lahore.
Terrorists identification: Khalistani supporters
Terrorist demands: *. The release of all fellow prisoners from jails and 250 million Rupees ‘for damaging the Golden Temple of Amritsar.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists demanded refueling the aircraft after releasing the passengers.
*. Pakistani negotiators managed to release all the passengers and bring the hijackers to surrender.
*.2 of the terrorists were sentenced to death, another 3 jailed for life by Pakistani court.


Date: 31 July 1984
Type of airline / aircraft: Air France, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 747
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 64
Destination: En route from Frankfurt to Paris.
The aircraft was taken to Teheran
Terrorists identification: Abu Nidal (ANO)
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.On landing, all passengers and crew were released, the aircraft cockpit was destroyed.


Date: 24 August 1984
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Boeing 737
Flight No.: IC 421
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 7
No. of passengers/crew/total: 87/6
Destination: En route from Delhi to Srinigar via Chandigarh to Jammu. The aircraft was taken to Lahore, then landed at Karachi after Dubai refused to permit landing.
Terrorists identification: Khalistan Sikh supporters who had boarded in at Chandigarh
Terrorist demands: The declaration of ‘Khalistan’.
*. The release of their 14 friends held in Pakistan, following previous hijacking (August 1982 and July 1984) and 40 Million Rs in Pakistani currency, and flying to the US
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The captain was V.K Metha, who was hijacked earlier on 4 August 1982 (IC-423), and air steward D.K Metha, who was involved in previous 2 cases of hijacking).
*. The terrorists demanded that the aircraft will circle the Golden Temple.
*.The hijackers surrendered after landing at Dubai. They were handed over to the Indian Government. All 7 hijackers were sentenced to life imprisonment in India
*. A pistol was given to the hijackers at Lahore, by Pakistani official
*.At Lahore, 2 Norwegian women and handicapped Indian with wife and son to were allowed to leave the aircraft
*. The aircraft was refueled in Karachi after hijackers’ threats to blow-up the aircraft. It was taken to Dubai after the captain’s warning that they were about to run out of fuel. The captain have managed to land despite previous Dubai’s authorities refusal to permit landing.


Date: 21 September 1984
Type of airline / aircraft: Ariana-Afghan Airlines DC-10
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 308
Destination: En route from Kandahar to Kabul
Terrorists identification: Afghan Revolutionaries
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The jet was hit by a surface to air missile
*.The aircraft managed to land safely. Substantial damage to the 2 hydraulic systems.


Date: 4 December 1984
Type of airline / aircraft: Kuwait Airlines, Airbus A-300
Flight No.: 221
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 161
Destination: En route from Kuwait to Karachi via Dubai .
The aircraft was taken to Teheran
Terrorists identification: Hezbollah
Terrorist demands: *.The release of 18 dissidents held in Kuwait.
Casualties / Injuries: *. 2 US nationals were murdered another 2 were tortured.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The 18 Iraqi-born Shiite dissidents had been arrested by the Kuwait authorities, following a failure coup in Kuwait. Among the 18 dissidents, was Imad’s Mughniyah brother -in-law. Mughniyah is believed to be behind the this hijacking, as well as behind the TWA Flight 846 hijacking (June 1985), and the Kuwait airways Boeing 747 hijacking (April 1988).
*.Some passengers were released upon arrival at Tehran.
*. The Iranian commandos stormed the aircraft.
*.All remaining passengers were released.


Date: 7 February 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Cyprus Airways, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 12
Destination: Beirut Airport bound for Larnaca
Terrorists identification: Black Brigade (Lebanese affiliation
Terrorist demands: The release of 2 Lebanese held in Cyprus
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists surrendered after Cyprus signaled willingness to consider fulfilling hijacker’s demands.


Date: 1 April 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Lebanese Middle East Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 76
Destination: En route from Beirut to Jeddah
Terrorists identification: Arabs
Terrorist demands: Financial aid for the anti-Israeli resistance
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks: *. The terrorist surrendered


Date: 4 April 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Alia Royal Jordanian Airlines, Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Athens airport bound for Amman
Terrorists identification: Abu Nidal (ANO)/Black September
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. 2 RPG-7 rockets were fired at the aircraft, failing to explode
*.Minor damages caused to the aircraft.


Date: 11 June 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Alia Royal Jordanian Boeing 727
Flight No.: 402
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 73/9
Destination: Beirut airport bound for Amman. The aircraft was taken to Larnaca (Cyprus), then back to Beiru
Terrorists identification: Amal-Lebanese Shiite terrorists
Terrorist demands: Internal -Shia-Palestinian conflict
Casualties / Injuries: 8 Jordanian sky-marshals were killed
Incident results /remarks:
*. All passengers and crew were released
*.The terrorists blew up the aircraft
*. The terrorists managed to escape after blowing up the jet.
*. The terrorist cell leader involved in the attack was Fuad Younes.


Date: 12 June 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Lebanese Middle East Airlines, Boeing 707

Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 76
Destination: En route from Beirut to Larnaca
Terrorists identification: Palestinian
Terrorist demands: Retaliation for the Jordanian hijacking
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The hijacker threatened to blow up the plane as a protest against the earlier Shiate Hijacking.
*. Some of the hijacked passengers on board had previously been released from the Alia Royal Jordanian Boeing 727 aircraft.
*.The hijacker surrendered in exchange for his return to Amman in a Jordanian airliner.


Date: 14 June 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA, Boeing 727
Flight No.: 847
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 145/8
Destination: En route from Athens to Rome. The aircraft was forced to shuttle from Beirut to Algiers and Again to Beirut.
Terrorists identification: Amal/Hezbollah
Terrorist demands: The release of 700 Shiite of Lebanon and Palestinians held in Israeli jails
Casualties / Injuries: *. A naval US soldier, Robert Stethem was badly beaten and then shot dead. His body was dumped on the tarmac.
Incident results /remarks:
*.A third terrorist couldn’t get a seat and wasn’t boarded.
*.Following Beirut airport control tower not to permit landing, the hijackers announced that they were ‘Suicide terrorists’, and that they would crash the aircraft into the Beirut airport control tower or fly it to Babbda presidential palace.
*. 17 women and 2 children were released upon arrival at Beirut.
*. Another 10 terrorists boarded at Beirut airport.
*. The Greek authorities released 21 year old Lebanese terrorist Ali Atwa jailed in Athens, following hijackers’ threat to murder 7 Greek passengers. In return, 67 hostages including the 7 Greek passengers were released at Algeria airport.
*. Another 21 were released upon arrival at Algiers. After a second landing in Beirut, another 61 passengers were released. The aircraft was taken again to Beirut, where all passengers, crew and aircraft were released, except for 39 Americans who remained as hostages, and the three-man crew who were held on board.
*.All hostages were released after 17 days, after Israel had released an amount of 300 Shia prisoners held in Atlit prison in Israel. Another 435 prisoners were released in batches during July, August and September that year.
*.On 15 January 1987, Mohammed Ali Hamadi was arrested in Frankfurt airport with liquid explosives. He was convicted for murdering the US naval Robert Stethem. He was sentenced to life imprisonment, but released from German jail on December 2005 and returned to Beirut.
*. Another suspect, Ali Atwa said that the hijackers managed to smuggle on board 2 grenades and a 9 mm pistol, after wrapping them with fiber glass insulation, so the X-ray machines could not detect them. Other source claim that the weapons were smuggled on board earlier by ground personnel, which were stowed in a lavatory
*. Another terrorist is Imad Mughniyah, known as the operations officer of the Hezbollah


Date: 23 June 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Air-India Boeing 747
Flight No.: Flight AL- 301
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Narita airport
Terrorists identification: Sikh terrorists named ‘The Dashmesh Regiment’
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: 2 Japanese airport employees were murdered another 4 seriously injured.
Incident results /remarks:
Failure Attempt:
A suitcase bomb was supposed to be loaded on Air-India flight at Narita airport (Tokyo) bound for Bangkok. The bomb was off-loaded from Canadian Pacific Airlines Flight 003 which arrived from Vancouver. The CP flight got delayed by about 45 minutes, and this in turn delayed the baggage transfer on Air India flight at Narita.
*. The bomb which appeared to be a plastic bomb, hidden in a Sanyo hi-fi tuner frame was exploded on a luggage trailer at Narita Airport,. The device was sold in a Vancouver electric retail shop to 2 Indians, 3 months before the explosion at Narita, on the same day of the ‘Kanishka’ disaster.


Date: 23 June 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Air-India Boeing 747 (‘Kanishka’)
Flight No.: AL 182
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 307/22
Destination: En route from Toronto to Bombay via Montreal and London
Terrorists identification: Sikh terrorists named ‘The Dashmesh Regiment’
Terrorist demands:——
Casualties / Injuries: All 329 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was exploded over the Atlantic
*. A Semtex Plastic bomb device, hidden in a Sanyo radio device that was placed in the cargo compartment after been transferred from a connecting flight, exploded during flight
*. The x-ray machine at Toronto airport was faulty o and security check was done by using hand-held bomb detectors, which anyway couldn’t detect the Semtex bomb.
*.2 main suspects were Ajaib Singh Bagri and Ripudaman Singh Malik. The motive was to retaliate against the Indian military attack of the Golden Temple at Amristar (1984).The terrorists operated on behalf of the struggle for the independence of Khalistan in the Punjab
*. It was suggested that since no official responsibility claim was issued, it was assumed that the suspected Sikh terrorists had intended to blow up the jet while it was on the ground at Heathrow airport. Since the jet was behind schedule, the bomb went off in mid-air.


Date: 4 September 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Baktar Afghan Airlines, Antonov 26
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 47/5
Destination: Domestic flight from Kabul to Farah with a stopover at Kandahar
Terrorists identification: Hezb-i Islami organization
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 52 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. Hezb-I Isami spokesman argued that the aircraft was carrying Soviet advisors. Afghan officials claimed that all passengers on board were civilians.


Date: 23 November 1985
Type of airline / aircraft: Egypt-Air, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 648
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 89/6
Destination: En route from Athens to Cairo. The aircraft was taken to Malta.
Terrorists identification: Abu-Nidal (ANO)
Terrorist demands:
Casualties / Injuries: 1 Israeli female passenger named Tamar Artzi is shot at her head, but survives remaining brain death Another Israeli passenger, Nitzan Mendelson was shot in her head, and died 9 days later. Another three Americans were shot: Patrick Baker (survived), Scarlett Rogenkamp (murdered); Jackie Pflug (survived)
*.The Egyptian sky marshal was injured following a gun fire, but murdered later by the terrorists.
*.56 passengers lost their lives during the rescue operation. another 35 injured. The two killed terrorists are not counted
Incident results /remarks:
*.Terrorists names: Shakuri Salah Salim (terrorists commander);Bo Sayid, Nar Al Adin Mohammed and Mohammad Ali Razek, all boarded with fake passports.
*.The hijackers released passengers at Luqa airport in exchange for food and medical treatment.
*. The terrorist commander, Shakuri Salah Salim was killed after been shot by an Egyptian sky marshal.
*.Egyptian commando unit named ‘SA’AQA 777’ (‘Thunderbolt’) stormed the aircraft by attaching explosives to the jet’s belly, but the result was a disaster: 58 passengers were killed, 35 injured. Among the killed passengers was Bo Sayid, Nar Al Adin Mohammed who was killed following the blast caused by the commando assault.
*. Of the 56 passengers killed following the Commando assault, four killed as a result of the commando gunfire, the rest died of suffocation resulted of poisoned gases after the jet caught fire, following the Egyptian commando attack.
*.The only survived terrorist, Mohammed Ali Rezaq (38) was convicted on 19 July ,1996 of in US court, and was sentenced to life in prison on October, 1996.


Date: 2 April 1986
Type of airline / aircraft: TWA, Boeing 727
Flight No.: 840
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 121
Destination: The bomb was detonated over Greece. The flight originated as a Boeing 747, en route from Los Angeles to Cairo.
Terrorists identification: Mohammed Rashid/
‘Colonel Hawari’ group headed by Abdullah Abd Al Hamid Labib
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: 4 passengers (one of them- an infant) were sucked out. The pilot managed to land at Athens
Incident results /remarks:
*.The bomb was smuggled on board in pieces, than snapped the bomb in the aircraft lavatory
*.There is evidence that the sabotage was a retaliation attack following the sinking of 2 Libyan gunboats in Sidra Gulf the week before by US navy
*. The bomb, made of plastic explosives was hidden under seat No. 10F.
*. It was suspected that a Lebanese woman named May Mansur who had boarded the aircraft at Cairo for Athens on the morning of April 2, and sat on seat 10F had placed the bomb.


Date: 17 April 1986
Type of airline / aircraft: )El-Al Boeing 747
Flight No.: LY 016
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 375
Destination: Bound for Tel-Aviv from New York via London
Terrorists identification: A Jordanian- Palestinian terrorist, recruited by Syrian officials.
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Failure attempt. El-Al security suspected the passenger and located the device.
*. The bomb was brought aboard by an unwitting passenger: pregnant Irish lady, named Ann Murphy, who appeared to be the terrorist’ girl friend.
*. The terrorist, named Nizar Hindawi was sentenced to 45 years jail in London.
*. According to Hindawi’s testimony, his controller was Mohammed Al- Khuli, head of the Syrian Air force intelligence.
*. It was suspected that the Syrian ambassador, Dr. Lotouf Haydar was involved in the sabotage attempt, a fact that caused the British government to declare the Syrian Ambassador as ‘Persona Non Grata’ and to break off diplomatic relations with Syria.


Date: 3 May 1986
Type of airline / aircraft: Air-Lanka, Lockheed Tristar L-1011
Flight No.: 101
Type of attack: Ground sabotage
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 128
Destination: Colombo’s Katunayake Airport
Terrorists identification: The Tamil Tigers (LTTE/ EELAM)
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 16 people were murdered, 41 injured.
Incident results /remarks:
*.Airport employee (customs officer supporter of the LTTE) was arrested later, as suspect for placing the bomb


Date: 26 June 1986
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al, Boeing 747
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Bound from Madrid
Terrorists identification: Abu-Mussa group /Syrian affiliation
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 13 passengers were injured and one security officer suffered burns.
Incident results /remarks:
*.Failure attempt The bomb was exploded near the Israeli airline check-in counter at Barajas airport, after being inspected by Israeli security, and due to malfunction. The bomb was planned to be activated 2 hours after take-off.
*. The Spaniard was given the suitcase, thinking that it contained drugs.


Date: 16 August 1986
Type of airline / aircraft: Sudan Airways, Fokker 27
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 57
Destination: Domestic flight from Malakal to Khartoum
Terrorists identification: Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 57 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was hit by SA-7 missile minutes after departing Malakal.


Date: 5 September 1986
Type of airline / aircraft: Pan-Am Boeing 747
Flight No.: PA 73
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 382
Destination: En route from Frankfurt to New-York via Bombay and Karachi
Terrorists identification: Abu-Nidal (ANO)
Terrorist demands: The release of 3 comrades held in Cyprus for the murder of 3 Israelis in 1985
Casualties / Injuries: 1 US businessman was shot and body was dumped on the tarmac.
*. Another flight attendant was shot after saving the life of 3 children.
*. Total of 22 passengers were killed during the operation and other 125 were injured
Incident results /remarks:
*. 3 flight crew escaped after hearing the shots
*. The hijackers opened fire after the aircraft cabin lights went off, following the malfunction of the generator.
*.4 Arabs males dressed as security personnel stormed the aircraft at Karachi airport.
*. The hijackers were arrested by Pakistani Government.
*. It was believed that the terrorists had planned to crash the jet into the centre of Tel Aviv (Israel)
*. On July 1988, 5 Abu-Nidal Terrorists were hanged for their involvement in the hijacking.


Date: 25 December 1986
Type of airline / aircraft: Iraqi Airways, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 163
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 107
Destination: En route from Baghdad to Saudi Arabia
Terrorists identification: Hezbollah /Islamic Jihad
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: 71 passengers were murdered, another 20 injured
Incident results /remarks:
*. 6 undercover Iraqi officers were on board. One of them tried to oppose the hijackers, who threw bombs
*.Following an explosion within the cockpit, the injured pilot tried to make a landing at Arar airstrip (Saudi Arabia). The aircraft caught fire and crashed.
*. 2 of the terrorists were killed following the explosion of crash.


Date: 5 May 1987
Type of airline / aircraft: Sudanese Aeronautical Services (SASCO) Airways, Cessna 404
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 11/2
Destination: Domestic flight from Malakal to Khartoum
Terrorists identification: Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 13 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was hit by SA-7 missile minutes after departing Malakal.


Date: 19 May 1987
Type of airline / aircraft: Air New Zealand, Boeing 747
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 129
Destination: En route from Tokyo to Auckland via Fiji
Terrorists identification: Air New Zealand employee
Terrorist demands: The release of 11 government members of Timoci Bavadra
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
Since the hijacker demand had a political motivation (the release of the 11 member government of Timoci Bavadra), the incident is considered as terrorism.


Date: 11 June 1987
Type of airline / aircraft: Afghan Airlines
Antonov-26
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 53
Destination: Domestic flight En route from Kandahar to Kabul
Terrorists identification: Rebel forces
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: *.All 53 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:?


Date: 24 July 1987
Type of airline / aircraft: Air Afrique, DC-10
Flight No.: 56
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 163
Destination: En route from Congo to Rome and Paris
Terrorists identification: Hezbollah
Terrorist demands: The release of Lebanese terrorist jailed in Germany for killing US navy Robert Sthemen during the TWA hijacking flight 847 (1985)
Casualties / Injuries: 1 passenger was murdered after a stop at Cointrin Airport (Switzerland). 30 were injured
Incident results /remarks:
*. Security personnel stormed the aircraft in Switzerland and arrested the terrorist.


Date: 29 November 1987
Type of airline / aircraft: Korean Airlines, Boeing 707
Flight No.: KAL 858
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 95/120
Destination: On route from Baghdad to Seoul via Abu -Dhabi and Bangkok
Terrorists identification: North-Korean agents supported by the JRA
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 115 passengers and crew were murdered.
Incident results /remarks:
*.The bomb contained 340 grams with a timing device was hidden in a radio device as well as a liquor bottle filled with explosives caused the aircraft to crash into the Andaman sea.
*. 2 passengers pretending to be a father and daughter under the names of Shinichi Hachiya and Mayumi Hachiya (originally 2 North Korean intelligence agents, named Kim Sung Il and Kim Hyun Hui) boarded the aircraft with false Japanese passports, arriving at Baghdad that morning equipped with the bomb given to them by North Korean officials in Belgrade, left it behind them and disembarked in Abu-Dhabi.
*. The radio batteries were removed by the Iraqi flight crew during flight from Belgrade to Baghdad, and later the radio was checked by Iraqi security personnel, but the explosive was not detected.
*.The couple were arrested in Bahrain. They tried to commit suicide by swallowing cyanide capsules. The old man died, the young woman survived. It appeared that they were North-Koreans, operating under direct orders of Kim Jong-Il, the North Korean leader son (Kim Il Sung) She was sentenced to life in South Korea, convicted of disrupting the South Korean elections and the planned Seoul Olympic Games.
*. The explosive was identified as C-4, odorless and easily molded, hidden in the radio, and 1 pound of liquid explosive that was concealed in a half gallon whisky bottle.


Date: 5 April 1988
Type of airline / aircraft: Kuwait Airways, Boeing 747
Flight No.: 422
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 9
No. of passengers/crew/total: 122
Destination: En route from Bangkok to Kuwait. The aircraft as taken to Iran, than to Larnaca, Cyprus, and Algeria
Terrorists identification: Hezbollah
Terrorist demands: The release of 18 terrorists held in Kuwait
Casualties / Injuries: 2 Kuwaiti passengers were murdered at Larnaca
Incident results /remarks:
*.Imad Moghniyah, a Hezbollah member, was the planner of the Hijacking.
*.Among the 18 terrorists (known as the ‘Ad Dawaa 18 group’) held in Kuwait, was Imad’s brother- in- law
*Other terrorists boarded at Iran.
*. The Beirut Airport controller refused to permit the hijacked aircraft to land, despite the pilot’s begging that the aircraft was running out of fuel. The aircraft continued to Cyprus.
*. The hijacking was a result of the hijackers’ inability to release their 17 colleagues held in Kuwait for committing terrorist attacks in Kuwait during December 1983
*.The Kuwaiti official policy was not to surrender to terrorists’ demands. Finally, the terrorists’ demands were not met .


Date: 23 September 1988
Type of airline / aircraft: Nile Safaries, Boeing 707
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: ground attack
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Juba airport (Sudan)
Terrorists identification: Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The aircraft was hit by machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades.


Date: 21 December 1988 ‘The Lockerbie affair’
Type of airline / aircraft: Pan-Am Boeing 747(‘Clipper Maid of the Seas’)
Flight No.: PA 103
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 243/16
Destination: En route from Frankfurt to New-York and Detroit via London
Terrorists identification: Libyan intelligence agents/PFLP-GC- Iranian Affiliation
Terrorist demands: ——–
Casualties / Injuries: All 259 passengers and crew as well as 11 civilians on the ground were murdered,another 5 on the ground were injured.
Incident results /remarks:
*.An anonymous Arab-accented warning call was made on 5 Dec to the US embassy in Helsinki, warning that Pan-Am flight, operating between Frankfurt and the US, would be bombed in the next 2 weeks, by an unsuspecting Finnish woman who would carry a bomb. The threat indicated the airline, the destination and the 2 weeks’ period, but did not specify the exact date or flight number. On December 10, the Finish authorities determined that the threat call was a hoax.
*. The bomb contained 350 gr. of Semtex, was equipped with timer hidden in a radio-cassette player, placed in the cargo compartment container No. 14L, (in front the port wing-root)) exploded in mid-air at a height of 31,000 ft.
*. The bomb, placed in Samsonite suitcase has been transferred to the Boeing 747 from another Pan-Am Boeing 727 flight, operating as feeder flight (103A) originating from Frankfurt, without additional screening at Heathrow airport
*. The terrorists intentions was to bomb the jet over sea, (as occurred at the Air India bombing-June 1985) for the purpose of thwarting investigation
*.Unlike Boeing 747 , the Boeing 727 does not carry the belly-luggage in containers, and the bomb was loaded at Heathrow unguarded into the forward cargo-hold compartment of the Boeing 747
*. It was suspected, that the bomb was planted in a suitcase that was carried to Germany by Air-Malta flight KM 180 that took off from Luqa airport for Frankfurt.
*.The 2 Libyan agents were Abdel baset Al Megrahi (former director of security at the Libyan Airline and later head of the Center of Strategic Studies in Libya). and Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah (Director of the Libyan Airline office in Malta-LAA)
*.The former was convicted (February 2001) the latter was set free.
*.On December 2003, Libya took responsibility, and agreed to pay $ 270 million US to the victims’ families ( $ 10 million US per family victim) in exchange of removing international embargo.
*. There is evidence that the PFLP-GC as well as the Iranians were involved in this attack. The PFLP-GC has specialized in aerial


Date: 19 September 1989
Type of airline / aircraft: UTA Airlines
(France), DC-10
Flight No.: 772
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 170
Destination: En route from Brazzaville (Congo) to Paris via Chad
Terrorists identification: Libyan intelligence agents/PFLP-GC- Iranian Affiliation
Terrorist demands: ——–
Casualties / Injuries: All 171 passengers were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.The aircraft was blown up over Niger.
*. The bomb, made of Semtex, was hidden in a radio-tape player, placed in a Samsonaite suitcase, similar to the bomb that destroyed Pan-Am Flight 103
*. The terrorist had recruited a young Congo native teenager to carry the suitcase on board, at Brazzaville and disembark at Ndjamena.
*. French judge had issued an International warrant for the arrest of Abdallahh Sanossi, who appeared to be a Lybian official’s nephew, Mussa Kussa (Deputy Foreign Minister in charge of terrorist activities) and Abdallahh Salem Zadma, from the Libyan Intelligence services
*.The involvement of Iran and the PFLP-GC was raised , since the bomb device used to destroy the aircraft was similar to the devices that were found in the apartment in West Germany, where the PFLP-GC cell was discovered


Date: 21 December 1989
Type of airline / aircraft: Medecines Sans Frontiers relief-aid aircraft
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 4/?
Destination: Departing Awell to Khartoum
Terrorists identification: Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.The aircraft was hit by a missile.


Date: 26 April 1990
Type of airline / aircraft: Avianca, Boeing 727
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air assassination
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Domestic flight from Bogota to Barranquilla
Terrorists identification: M-19 rebel group member
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 1 targeted passenger was murdered. The assassin was killed later.
Incident results /remarks:
The assassinated target was a candidate for Colombia’s presidency.
*.Since the target was a political person, and the attack was deliberate, is will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 10 November 1990
Type of airline / aircraft: Thai Airways, Airbus A-300
Flight No.: 305
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 221
Destination: En route from Bangkok to Rangoon
Terrorists identification: Burmese terrorists
Terrorist demands: The release of pro-Democratic leader held in house arrest in Myanmar+ 2 others jailed in Thailand
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
The terrorists later surrendered.


Date: 16 March 1991
Type of airline / aircraft: Transafric Airlines, Lockheed L-1011
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 5/4
Destination: Domestic flight near Malanje, Angola
Terrorists identification: UNITA
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 9 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. Since the target was a civilian aircraft, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 26 March 1991
Type of airline / aircraft: Singapore Airlines, Airbus A-310
Flight No.: 117
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 129
Destination: En route from Kuala Lumpur to Singapore. The aircraft was taken to Chagi Airport (Singapore)
Terrorists identification: Pakistani terrorists
Terrorist demands: Release of prisoners held in Pakistani jails, including the Husband of Benazir Bhutto (former Prime Minister)
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Commando unit stormed the aircraft. All 4 terrorists were killed
*. Since one of the prisoners whose release was demanded was the husband of a political person, the incident will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 9 November 1991
Type of airline / aircraft: Aeroflot, Tu- 154
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 7/178
Destination: From Mineralnyye Vody (Kaukau) to Ekaterinburk (Ural).The jaet was taken to Ankara
Terrorists identification: Chechnyan terrorists
Terrorist demands: The withdrawal of the Russian troops from Chechnya
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The attack, organized by Shamil Bassayev, took place one month after failure of presidential candidate Johar Dudayev .
*. The terrorists released the passengers upon arriving at Grozni, that the jet continued with the terrorists to Ankara, where they surrendered.


Date: 4 September 1992
Type of airline / aircraft: Vietnam Airlines, Airbus A -300
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 167
Destination: En route from Bangkok to Ho Chi Minh City(Vietnam)
Terrorists identification: Vietnamese-American named Ly Tong
Terrorist demands: Dropping anti- Communist leaflets over Ho Chi Minh City
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
The terrorist was sentenced to 20 years in prison, but was released after 6 years, following presidential amnesty.


Date: 27 March 1993
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Airbus A-320
Flight No.: 439
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 192/11
Destination: En route from Delhi to Hyderabad. The aircraft was taken to
Amritsar after Pakistani refusal to land at Lahore
Terrorists identification: Hindi affiliated terrorist named Hari Singh
Terrorist demands: Protesting the Hindu-Muslim violence in India. The hijacker read a statement accusing his government of corruption, and hijacked the aircraft to convey a peace message.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorist pretended to have explosives strapped to his body.
*. The terrorist surrendered to the local authorities.
*.Since the motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 24 April 1993
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 427
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 135/6
Destination: En route from Delhi to Srinagar
Terrorists identification: Kashmiri militant affiliated to Hezbul Mujahideen
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist’s shooting damaged the aircraft’s fuselage
*. The terrorist smuggled a weapon hidden by a crippled man into the aircraft
*. The terrorist’s destination was Kabul. The aircraft was taken to Lahore due to lack of fuel. The Pakistani government refused to allow the hijacked aircraft to land at Lahore, and the aircraft was taken to Amritsar.
*.The terrorist was shot dead by Indian commandos.


Date: 15 August 1993
Type of airline / aircraft: KLM, Boeing 737
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 143
Destination: En route from Tunis to Amsterdam. The aircraft was taken to Dusseldorf
Terrorists identification: Egyptian
Terrorist demands: The release of Omar Abel- Rahman (‘the blind Sheikh’) a terrorist leader involved in the bombing attempt of the World Trade Center on February 26,1993
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks: The German police (GSG-9) stormed the aircraft and arrested the terrorist.


Date: 20 September 1993
Type of airline / aircraft: Orbi Georgian Airways, Tupolev 134
Flight No.:
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Sukhumi-Babusheri Airport (SUI)
Terrorists identification: Abkhazian separatists
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: ?
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists launched the missiles from boats out on the Black Sea, the first reported attack of MANPADS launched from boats.


Date: 21 September 1993
Type of airline / aircraft: Transair Georgia, Tupolev 134
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 22/5
Destination: Bound for Sukhumi-Babusheri Airport (SUI) from Sochi airport
Terrorists identification: Abkhazian separatists
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 27 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.The jet was hit upon approaching the airport loosing control and crashing into the sea from a height of 300m. The terrorists launched the missiles from boats out on the Black Sea.


Date: 22 September 1993
Type of airline / aircraft: Transair Georgia, Tupolev 154
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total:120/12
Destination: Bound for Sukhumi-Babusheri Airport from Tbilisi-Novo Alexeyevka Airport
Terrorists identification: Abkhazian separatists
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: 108 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
The aircraft was shot down by MANPADS. The Tu-154 crashed onto the runway and caught fire.


Date: 23 September 1993
Type of airline / aircraft: Transair Georgia, Tupolev 134
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Bound for Sukhumi-Babusheri Airport (SUI) Tbilisi-Novo Alexeyevka Airport
Terrorists identification: Abkhazian separatists
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: 1 passenger was murdered
Incident results /remarks:
Passengers were boarding the aircraft when it was struck by mortar or artillery fire. The Tupolev caught fire and burned out.


Date: 7 April 1994
Type of airline / aircraft: Falcon 50
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 3/9
Destination: En route from Dar-es -Salaam (Tanzanya) to Kigali(Rwanda)
Terrorists identification: Tutsi/ Hutu terrorists
Terrorist demands:——
Casualties / Injuries: 12 casualties: Rwandan and Burundi presidents, and another 10 on board
Incident results /remarks:
*.Among the victims: President Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda and President Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi
*. The 2 SAM’s missiles ( according to the Le Figaro) were supplied by France, and somehow had found their way to Africa.


Date: 19 July 1994
Type of airline / aircraft: Alas Chricicanas Airlines Embraer-110

Flight No.: 91
Type of attack: Air Sabotage
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 18/3
Destination: En route from Colon to Panama City
Terrorists identification: Ansar Allah Lebanese group
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 21 passengers and crew were murdered.
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorist group was also named ‘Partisans of God’.


Date: 25 October 1994
Type of airline / aircraft: Russian YAK-40
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 27
Destination: En route from Makhachkala to Rostov
Terrorists identification: Chechean terrorists
Terrorist demands: $ 2 million ransom and to be flown to Iran
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The jet returned to Makhachkala, and the terrorist blew himself up following security storm on the jet


Date: 3 November 1994
Type of airline / aircraft: SAS-Scandinavian Airlines, MD-82
Flight No.: 347
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 128
Destination: Domestic flight from Bardufoss to Oslo
Terrorists identification: Bosnian refugee
Terrorist demands: Drawing worldwide attention to the situation of his country and demanding international aid
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The possible motive was related to the Bosnian people. Since is was motivated by political issue, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 11 December 1994
Type of airline / aircraft: Philippine Airlines, Boeing 747
Flight No.: PAL 434
Type of attack: Air sabotage
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 272/20
Destination: En route from Manila to Tokyo via Cebu
Terrorists identification: Ramzi Yousef/Al Qaeda
Terrorist demands: —–

Casualtie:s / Injuries A 24 years-old Japanese engineer passenger named Haruki Ikegami was murdered, another 6 were injured

Incident results /remarks:
*.Yousef managed to pass the X-ray screening machine, with two 9 volt batteries hidden in his shoes, and a bottle of eyes-contact lenses filled with nitroglycerine using a false passport under the name: Armaldo Porlami
*.The bomb had been assembled in the aircraft’s lavatories, using a Casio watch as a timer and set to be detonated after four hours, when the jet is cruising over the Pacific. *.The bomb was placed by Yousef in the life-vest pocket located under seat 26K, believing that this seat was located on top the central fuel tank.
*.Yousef disembarked in Cebu
*. The aircarft made an emergency landing on nearby Okinawa Island
*.Ramzi Yousef called the Associated Press news agency and claimed responsibility on behalf of Abu Sayyaf Group, Al Qaeda’s faction in the Philippines.
*.The mid-air sabotage was part of Yousef/Al-Qaeda attempt to sabotage 12 US Jumbo Jets in mid-air (‘the Bojinka plot’) on 21-22 January 1995), in retaliation for the US support of Israel. Yousef was sentenced to 240 years in prison (8 January , 1998) .


Date: 24 December 1994
Type of airline / aircraft: Air France, Airbus A-300
Flight No.: 8969
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers:4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 173/12
Destination: Algiers airport.
The aircraft was taken to Marseilles
Terrorists identification: GIA-Armed Islamic Group
Terrorist demands: Release of 2 leaders of the Islamic Salvation Front held in house arrest.
Casualties / Injuries: 3 passengers were murdered: a Vietnamese diplomat, a 27 years old French employee of the French Embassy, and an Algerian policeman officer whose identity was discovered following Passports check by the terrorists. was killed.
*.25 injured, including the captain, Brenard Dellem
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists leader was Abdul Abdallahh Ihia, announcing that they are ‘Soldiers of God’.
*.The terrorists managed to board the jet disguised as ‘presidential police personnel’, claiming for passengers identity check.
*.63 passengers were released mainly women and children .
*.The terrorists shouted ‘Allah Akbar’ during the hijacking, and quoted passages of the Koran over the aircraft’s speaker system.
*. Upon landing at Marseilles, the terrorists demanded that the jet will be loaded with 27 tons of fuel for the journey to Paris, when the fuel amount needed for this leg is about one third. The hijackers were killed following a rescue operation held by elite French GIGN unit (26 December). 20 Dynamite sticks were found under the aircraft seats.
*.Later reports indicated that the terrorists had intention of using the aircraft as a flying missile, blowing-up the aircraft over Paris, and possibly crashing it into the Eiffel Tower.


Date: 21 June 1995
Type of airline / aircraft: All Nippon Airways, Boeing 747
Flight No.:
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 365
Destination: Domestic flight en route from Tokyo to Hakodate
Terrorists identification: Japanese assailant
Terrorist demands: The release of the Religious leader Shoko Asahara who was responsible for the Tokyo underground gas attack (20 March, 1995)
Casualties / Injuries: 1 passenger was injured
Incident results /remarks:
The hijacker was injured and arrested.


Date: 6 March 1996
Type of airline / aircraft: Cyprus-Turkish Airlines (THY), Boeing 727
Flight No.: 007
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 108
Destination: En route from Ercan (Cyprus) to Istanbul. The aircraft was taken to Sofia for refueling, than continued to Munich
Terrorists identification: Turkish citizen
Terrorist demands: Political statement supporting Chechen separatists.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. All the passengers were released upon arrival at Munich.
*. Since the hijacker’s motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 10 March 1996
Type of airline / aircraft: Hainan Airlines, Boeing 737
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 149
Destination: Domestic flight
en route from Hangzhou Airport to Haikou
The aircraft was taken to Taiwan
Terrorists identification: 2 Chinese couples with 2 children
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorists were overpowered by security sky-marshals on board.


Date: 26 July 1996
Type of airline / aircraft: Iberia, DC-10
Flight No.: 6621
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 232
Destination: En route from Madrid to Havana. The aircraft was taken to Miami
Terrorists identification: Lebanese
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorist surrendered to American authorities.
*.A few days later, 2 Palestinians were arrested in Germany for assisting the hijacker.


Date: 24 February 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Turkish Airlines, AVRO RJ-100
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 63/5
Destination: Domestic flight from Adana to Ankara. The aircraft was taken to Diyarbakir airport, Turkey
Terrorists identification: Turkish- national male
Terrorist demands: Protest oppression of Muslims in Algeria
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist demanded to be flown to Tehran, but was convinced by the pilot to land at Diyarbakir for refueling.
*. 20 passengers were released upon landing at Diyarbakir
*. Since the hijacker’s motive involved a political issue, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 12 March 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Llanera de Aviacion air company,Cesna 182
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: 20
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Palmerito airstrip, Cumbaribo Municipality. The plane was taken by the hijackers to Llanos del Yari
Terrorists identification: FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Columbia)
Terrorist demands:?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. No passengers were involved in the hijacking. The 2 pilots were ordered to leave the plane.
*.The terrorists claimed that the aim was to pick up a wounded FARC leader and take him abroad for medical care.


Date: 24 May 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Pakistan Airlines, Fokker F-27
Flight No.: PIA 554
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 29/4
Destination: Domestic flight from Turbat. To Karachi. The pilots took the aircraft to Hyderabad
Terrorists identification: ‘Baluchistan Students’ Federation Terrorist demands: $ 20 million US for developing their province and protesting against nuclear testing
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties army officer was slightly injured
Incident results /remarks:
*.Among the 4 terrorists, one was an airport security official who boarded the aircraft with weapon
*. Since the hijackers’ motive involved a political issue, it will be considered as terrorism.
*.The 4 terrorists were sentenced to death by Pakistani court.


Date: 2 August 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Blue Airlines Boeing 727
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: ?
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Goma
Terrorists identification: Congolese rebels
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Since the hijacking was carried out by a sub-national group, and as the motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 4 August 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Air Atlantic Cargo, in service to Lina Congo (LAC
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: ?
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Goma. The aircraft was taken to Kitona via Kinshasha
Terrorists identification: Congolese rebels
Terrorist demands: Picking up ammunition
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Since the hijacking was carried out by a sub-national group, and as the motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 29 September 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Lion Air Antonov 24RV
Flight No.: 602
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 48/7
Destination: Domestic flight en route from Jaffna to Colombo
Terrorists identification: LTTE
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 55 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was attacked by SA-14 missile.


Date: 10 October 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Lignes Aeriennes Congolaises-Congo Airlines Boeing 727
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 38/3
Destination: En route from Kindu to Kinshasa
Terrorists identification: Congo Tutsi terrorists
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 41 passengers were murdered.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The aircraft was shot down by SA-7 missile, 3 minutes after take-off from Kindu.


Date: 27 October 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Helicopter
Flight No.:?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination:Over the city of Orito

Terrorists identification: FARC
Terrorist demands: ——-
 Casualties / Injuries:?

Incident results /remarks:?


Date: 29 October 1998
Type of airline / aircraft: Turkish Airlines, Boeing 737
Flight No.: 487
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 34/6
Destination: Domestic flight
En route from Adana to Ankara
Terrorists identification: Kurdish national male
Terrorist demands: Protest against Turkish ‘dirty war’ against the Kurds and forcing the pilot to read a statement praising the PKK leader Abdullah Ochalan
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The hijacking occurred during the 75th anniversary celebration of the Turkish republic. The hijacker admitted that the date chosen wasn’t accidental
*.The hijacker demanded to be taken to Lausanne, but accepted the captain’s advice to be taken to Sofia for the purpose of refueling. The pilot landed instead at Ankara Esenboga airport.
*.The aircraft was stormed by Turkish National Special action team, killing the hijacker.
*. Since the hijackers’ motive involved a political issue, it will be considered as terrorism .


Date: 2 January 1999
Type of airline / aircraft: TransAfric, Hercules C- 130
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 5/4
Destination: En route from Huambo to Luanda
Terrorists identification: UNITA
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: All 8 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.The aircraft was painted in UN colors
*. Angolan authorities claimed that the downing attempt was related to the UNITA, whose officials denied shooting the plane


Date: 5 March 1999
Type of airline / aircraft: Askhab Airlines, Tu-134
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground kidnapping
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total:27
Destination: Severnyy Airport (Grozny)
Terrorists identification: Anti- Russian radical Islamic organization
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The kidnapped passenger was Russian Major-General Gennadiy Shpigun, who was taken to an un- known location.
*.Since the event took place on board a civilian aircraft, the incident will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 12 April 1999
Type of airline / aircraft: Avianca Airlines, Fokker 50
Flight No.: 9463
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 36/5
Destination: Domestic flight between Bucaramanga and Bogota. The aircraft was taken to a clandestine airstrip near Simiti.
Terrorists identification: ‘Heroes of Santa Rosa’ front, affiliated to the National Liberation Army (ELN)- rebels
Terrorist demands: Forcing the Colombian government to take 2 Colombian guerrilla groups into account regarding peace negotiations, restoring communication with 2 jailed ELN members and demanding ransom in exchange for the remaining hostages
Casualties / Injuries: 1 hostage died in captivity
Incident results /remarks:
*. The hijackers were dressed as businessmen, (1 wore a Catholic priest’s collar). The hijacker who entered the cockpit had knowledge of flying.
*.Colombian refusal to follow ELN demands caused the ELN to demand ransom directly from the hostages’ families.
*.The ELN released 25 passengers, mostly women and , children between April and October
*. More than 15 hostages were still held by the hijackers for a period of 8 months.
*. Since the rebels targeted a civilian aircraft, it will be considered as terrorism.
*. The Avianca hijacking was the first and most serious event in civil aviation in Latin America, considering the captivity of all aircraft passengers and crew for such a long period.


Date: 12 May 1999
Type of airline / aircraft: AVITA-Angolan Company, Antonov -26
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 6
Destination: En route from Luzamba to Luanda
Terrorists identification: UNITA
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: All 6 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
UNITA later declared that they had captured 3 Russian crew members.


Date: 30 July 1999
Type of airline / aircraft: Avior: Venezuelan Aviones de Oriente Airlines, Beechcraft 1900D
Flight No.: 83
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 13/2
Destination: Domestic flight between Caracas and Guasdualito via Barinas
Terrorists identification: FARC
Terrorist demands: Ransom
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Among the terrorists, 2 were women.
*. All passengers and crew were released.


Date: 2 November 1999 ‘Double hijacking’
Type of airline / aircraft: helicopter, Bell 400
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: The helicopters took off from Marcos Gelabert Airport for Kuna Yala (San Blas Province)
Terrorists identification: FARC
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The first helicopter hijacking.
*. The terrorists claimed that they needed the helicopter for transferring wounded guerrilla fighters.


Date: 2 November 1999 ‘Double hijacking’
Type of airline / aircraft: helicopter, Bell 400
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground hijacking
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: The helicopters took off from Marcos Gelabert Airport for Kuna Yala (San Blas Province)
Terrorists identification: FARC
Terrorist demands:?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorists claimed that they needed the helicopter for transferring wounded guerrilla fighters.


Date: 24 December 1999
Type of airline / aircraft: Indian Airlines, Airbus A-300
Flight No.: 814
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 6
No. of passengers/crew/total:183
Destination: En route from Katmandu to New Delhi. The aircraft was taken to Amristar, then to Lahore, ,Dubai and Kandahar
Terrorists identification: Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)
/Harakat ul-Ansar
Terrorist demands: Release of Maulana Masood Azhar, (Pakistani-Kashmiri separatist leader of the Harakat al Mujahidin Islamic group- HUM and 35 Muslim members, all jailed in India, $ 200 million US, and the return of the body of Kashmiri separatist Sajjad Afghani
Casualties / Injuries: 1 passenger named Rippan Katyal was murdered after disobeying the terrorists order not to look at them
Incident results /remarks:
*.The pilot made en emergency landing at Lahore, despite Pakistan refusal to permit landing.
*. All the terrorists were Pakistani citizens.
*. The terrorists failed to receive landing permission at Oman and Dubai, but finally landed at an isolated Dubai air base.
*. Previous plan to land at Kabul (Afghanistan) failed due to lack of night landing facilities.
*. 28 passengers were released upon arriving at Dubai in exchange for food and fuel ,as well as the body of a passenger, who had been stabbed to death,
*. Another diabetic passenger was released at Kandahar.
*. The terrorists threatened to murder the hostages unless their demands were met.
*.The event ended on 31 December, 1999.
*.Eventually, 3 jailed Kashmiri Muslim militants were released by the Indian Government including Maulana Masood Azhar( who founded after his release the Jaish-e-Muhammad- JEM group ,2000) and Ahmmed Omar Saed Sheikh, (who was later responsible for the murder of the American-Jewish journalist, Daniel Pearl in 2002) in exchange for the plane and passengers. The terrorists were given 10 hours to leave Afghanistan


Date: 18 August 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: Azerbaijan Airlines, TU-154
Flight No.: 254
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 164
Destination: Domestic flight from Nakhichevan to Baku
Terrorists identification: Nakhichevan branch of the opposition Musavat party.
Terrorist demands: To visit a hospitalized Azeri political leader in Turkey and postponing parliamentary elections until the end of 2000.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The terrorist who was identified as the chairman of the Nakhichevan branch, was overpowered by 2 air-marshals over Azeri airspace.


Date: 14 September 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: Qatar Airways, Airbus A-300
Flight No.: 404
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 131/11
Destination: En route from Doha to Amman. The aircraft was taken to Saudi Arabia
Terrorists identification: Iraqi National terrorist
Terrorist demands: Protesting against UN sanctions against Iraq.
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist surrendered upon arrival at Hai’l, Saudi Arabia.
*. Since the motive was political, it will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 16 September 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: Solomon Airlines, Britten Norman Islander
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers:?
No. of passengers/crew/total: /1
Destination: Solomon islands
Terrorists identification: Faction of the Isatabu Freedom Movement Militia group(IFM)
Terrorist demands: 2 million Solomon dollars
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Since the hijackers’ orientation was politically motivated, the incident will be considered as terrorism.
*.IFM spokesman declared that the hijacking was a result of ‘dissatisfaction over the failure of the deputy prime minister to fulfill the many promises he had made…’
*. The pilot was released on 6 October. No ransom was paid.


Date: 12 October 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: Helicopter
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: ground hijacking
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 10
Destination: Sucumbios (Ecuador)
Terrorists identification: Former members of defunct Colombian Popular Liberation Army (EPL)
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: 1 American hostage was murdered. The others were released after ransom payment of $ 13 Million.
Incident results /remarks:
*. The hostages were Spanish employees of the REPSOL energy consortium
*. The 2 French helicopter pilots escaped 4 days after the capture.


Date: 14 October 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: Saudi Arabian Airlines, Boeing 777
Flight No.: 115
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 2
No. of passengers/crew/total: 112
Destination: En route from Jeddah to London. The aircraft was taken to Baghdad
Terrorists identification: Saudi terrorists
Terrorist demands: Demanding reforms in Saudi Arabia as well as making a political statement
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.One of the terrorists was employed as a security guard at Jeddah airport.
*.The terrorists praised Iraqi authorities and criticized their own government. One of them declared: ‘We carried out the operation because we believe in the principles of justice and equality’ The other said the Saudi people were against the presence of US. troops in their territory.
*.The terrorists demanded to fly to Baghdad because Iraq rejects ‘US. hegemony’.
*. One of the terrorists had at one point threatened to blow up the plane unless it was allowed to fly to Baghdad.


Date: 11 November 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: Vnukovo Airlines, TU-154
Flight No.: 838
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total:49/10
Destination: Domestic flight en route from Makhachkala to Moscow. The aircraft was taken to Israel.
Terrorists identification: A 27 year old terrorist Akhmed Amirkhanov
Terrorist demands: The terrorist announced that he was fighting against world domination by Asians
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist surrendered upon landing in Israel
*. There were no signs of insanity element, therefore the incident will be considered as terrorism.


Date: 17 November 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: ?
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: ?
Destination: Bangkok. The aircraft was forced to fly to Vietnam.
Terrorists identification: Vietnamese American named Ly Tong
Terrorist demands: Dropping leaflets over Ho Chi Minh City
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The terrorist was a former South Vietnamese soldier who had previously hijacked a Vietnamese Airlines (Airbus A-300)aircraft on 4 September 1992 for the purpose of dropping Anti-Communist leaflets .Tong was sentenced to 7 years and 4 months in prison.


Date: 4 December 2000
Type of airline / aircraft: Sabena Airlines, Airbus A-300
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total:158/12
Destination: En route from Brussels to Nairobi
Terrorists identification: Hutu rebels
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: 2 passengers suffered slight injuries
Incident results /remarks:
*.The shooting occurred upon landing at Bujumbura airport.


Date: 15 March 2001
Type of airline / aircraft: Vnukovo Airlines, Tupolew Tu-156
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 3
No. of passengers/crew/total: 162/12
Destination: Bound for Moscow from Istanbul. The aircraft was taken to Saudi Arabia
Terrorists identification: Chechnian Terrorists
Terrorist demands: The terrorists demanded an end to war in rebel Chechnya
Casualties / Injuries: 1 Turkish passenger and 1 Russian flight attendant
were killed following the security storm
Incident results /remarks:
*.50 passengers were released after landing in Meddina
*.Saudi Arabian special forces stormed the aircraft
*. At least 1 terrorist was killed following the security storm.


Date: 24 July 2001
Type of airline / aircraft: Sri Lanka Airlines
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: Ground attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 12/?
Destination: Bandaranaike International Airport (Colombo)
Terrorists identification: LTTE(Tamil Tigers)
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.The airline lost 50% of it’s fleet: an Airbus A-340 and A-330 aircraft were destroyed; another 2 A-320’s were badly damaged; another A-330’s undercarriage was damaged
*. 13 terrorists were killed during the attack .


Date: 11 September 2001
Type of airline / aircraft: American Airlines, Boeing 767
Flight No.: AA 11
Type of attack: Aerial suicide mission
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 81/11
Destination: En route from Boston to Los Angeles
Terrorists identification: Al -Qaeda
Terrorist demands: —–
Casualties / Injuries: All 87 passengers and crew were murdered.
Incident results /remarks:
*.5 terrorists named Mohamed Atta (pilot);Abdul Aziz al Omari;Satam al Suqami;Wail al Shehri and Waleed al Shehri, took over the jet, using knives and pepper spray.
*.Mohammed Atta, the Operation Commander, was the only terrorist on board who knew how to fly the aircraft
*.The jet crashes into the north tower of the WTC at 08:46 ET.


Date: 11 September 2001
Type of airline / aircraft: United Airlines, Boeing 767
Flight No.: 175
Type of attack: Aerial suicide mission
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 56/9
Destination: En route from Boston to Los Angeles
Terrorists identification: Al -Qaeda
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 60 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.5 terrorists named Marwan al Shehhi (pilot); Fayez Banihammad; Mohand al Shehri;Ahmed al Ghamdi and Hamza al Ghamdi took over the jet, using knives.
*. The jet crashes into the south tower of the WTC at 09:03 ET.


Date: 11 September 2001
Type of airline / aircraft: American Airlines, Boeing 757
Flight No.: AA 77
Type of attack: Aerial suicide mission
No. of attackers: 5
No. of passengers/crew/total: 58/6
Destination: En route from Washington to Los Angeles
Terrorists identification: Al -Qaeda
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 59 passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.5 terrorists: Hani Hanjour (pilot); Khalid al Mihdhar; Majed Moqed, and 2 brothers: Nawaf al Hazmi and Salem al Hazmi, took over the jet, using knifes
*.The jet crashed into the Pentagon at 09:37 ET, 125 casualties, among them 55 military personnel.


Date: 11 September 2001
Type of airline / aircraft: United Airlines, Boeing 757
Flight No.: 93
Type of attack: Aerial suicide mission
No. of attackers: 4
No. of passengers/crew/total: 37/7
Destination: En route from New-Jersey to San Francisco
Terrorists identification: Al -Qaeda
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 40 passengers and crew were murdered.
Incident results /remarks:
*.4 terrorists named Ziad Jarrah (pilot) ; Saeed al Ghamdi; Ahmed al Nami; Ahmed al Haznawi took over the jet, using knives. Among them, Ziad Jarra was the only one who took flying courses.
*. Seconds before the crash, Jarra and another terrorist shouted ‘Allahh Akbar’
*.The primary target was the White House. This evidence was discovered following the testimony of whom is suspected to be the ‘twentieth hijacker’ Zachariah Moussawi, who had admitted his role within Al Qaeda plan. Moussawi confessed on Friday April 22, 2005 in Alexandria court (Virginia) that he was intended to crash a jet into the White House.later, on 27 March 2006 Moussawi changed his testimony claiming that he and Richard Reid (‘The shoe Bomber’) were assigned to be the hijackers of a fifth aircraft, aiming to crash it into the White House.
*.Following passengers’ resistance, the jet crashed in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.
*. Total of casualties including Pentagon and WTC :2694, (or 2749 including 55 military personnel killed at the Pentagon).
The first- ever incident where the aircraft was a ‘strategic agent’, in this case, the aircraft filled the position of flying missile. The main purpose was to target American symbols (buildings)


Date: 22 December 2001
Type of airline / aircraft: American Airlines, Boeing 767
Flight No.: 63
Type of attack: Aerial suicide mission
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 185/12
Destination: En route from Paris to Miami. The aircraft landed at Boston Logan airport
Terrorists identification: Al-Qaeda
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. Failure attempt:
The terrorist, Richard C. Reid (28), also named Abdul Raheem, and a member of Al Qaeda, boarded the jet with 10 ounces of plastic explosives(TATP-Triacetone Triperoxide) hidden in his shoes
*. Reid attempted to board the same flight the previous day, the December 21, the 13th anniversary date of the Pan-Am bombing (21 December, 1988), but he was delayed by suspicious French authorities.
*. There is an evidence that the FAA had issued on December 11 warning to airlines that someone might attempt to get on board an aircraft with weapon in a shoe through a checkpoint
*. There is an evidence that the original plan was to bomb 2 US jets in mid-air, simultaneously. The other terrorist, Saajid Mouhammed Badat (25) have decided to withdraw from the plot. He was convicted in Britian court on 23 April, 2005 and sentenced to 13 years for his role in assisting Reid. Admitting that he planned to deliver the bomb on board.


Date: 18 November 2002
Type of airline / aircraft: El-Al, Boeing 757
Flight No.: LY 581
Type of attack: Air hijacking
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 170
Destination: En route from Tel Aviv To Istanbul
Terrorists identification: Israeli-Arab student
Terrorist demands: ?
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*.Failure attempt:
The terrorist (23), named Taufik Fukra, a student at the ‘Sapir’ college affiliated to the Ben-Gurion University in Israel, boarded equipped with small knife hidden in his clasp belt.
*. The terrorist was overpowered by an Israeli sky marshal.


Date: 28 November 2002
Type of airline / aircraft: Arkia (Israel) Boeing 757
Flight No.: 582
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 261/10
Destination: After take off from Mombassa, Kenya bound for Tel-Aviv
Terrorists identification: Al-Qaeda
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. 2 SA-7 (‘Strella 2’) missiles (1978 vintage) were launched after take -off from a distance of 1 km. from the airport. The missiles missed the target, since they were launched too close to the aircraft
*. The missiles serial numbers were from the same production line serial of the Strella missiles fired against an American military jet in Saudi Arabia in May 2002.
*. The twin missiles tubes plus other two Strella missiles were found later


Date: 22 November 2003
Type of airline / aircraft: DHL, A-300
Flight No.: ?
Type of attack: MANPADS attack
No. of attackers: ?
No. of passengers/crew/total: 3
Destination: Bound for Dubai from Baghdad
Terrorists identification: Iraqi terrorists
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: No casualties
Incident results /remarks:
*. The cargo jet was targeted by SA-14(Gremlin) missile.
*. Since the jet was a civilian target, it will be considered as terrorism
*. The wing was damaged, but the 3 man crew managed to land the jet safely at Baghdad airport.


Date: 24 August 2004 ‘The twin- Suicide Sabotage’
Type of airline / aircraft: Sibir Airlines, Tu-154
Flight No.: 1047
Type of attack: Aerial suicide mission
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total: 46
Destination: Domestic flight
Bound for Volgograd from Domodedovo Airport
Terrorists identification: ‘The Islambouli Brigades’- affiliated to Chechnyan terrorists
Terrorist demands: ——
Casualties / Injuries: All 45 Passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.A hijack alert was activated before the crash.
*.The female suicide bomber who boarded the Tu 154 jet was a Chechean named S.Dzhebirkhnova got on board with an explosive belt wrapped around herself.
*.The 2 aircraft exploded in mid-air nearly simultaneously
*.Remains of explosives (Hexogen, also known as RDX), were found among the jet’s remains
*.All passengers and crew were murdered.


Date: 24 August 2004 ‘The twin- Suicide Sabotage’
Type of airline / aircraft: Volga-Avia express Airlines Tu-134
Flight No.: 1303
Type of attack: Aerial suicide mission
No. of attackers: 1
No. of passengers/crew/total:41
Destination: Domestic flightBound for Sochi from Domodedovo Airport
Terrorists identification: ‘The Islambouli Brigades’- affiliated to Chechnyan Terrorists
Terrorist demands: ——-
Casualties / Injuries: All 40 Passengers and crew were murdered
Incident results /remarks:
*.A hijack alert was activated before the crash.
*. The female suicide bomber who boarded the Tu 134 jet was a Chechean named Aminat Nagayva, 27 got on board with an explosive belt wrapped around herself, after buying the flying ticket I hour before departure, paying in cash.
*. One of Aminat’s brothers had been arrested in the past by Russian soldiers, and never returned to his home
*.Remains of Explosives (Hexogen, also known as RDX), were found among the Jet remains
*.The 2 aircraft exploded in mid-air nearly simultaneously. ‘Islambuli Brigades’ was named after Egyptian President Sadat’s assassin, Islambuli.

Dr. Hillel Avihai
Elul 9 street, Modiin 71723 ISRAEL
Tel/Fax: 00972-8-6526508
Mobile: 052-8818616
E-mail: info@skyjack.co.il
ד”ר הלל אביחי
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טל: 08-6526508
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דוא”ל :info@skyjack.co.il
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